Table 4.

Independent explanatory variables associated with maternal and fetal complications in patients with SLE.

Maternal ComplicationsFetal Complications
Yes, n = 40No, n = 123PYes, n = 73No, n = 90P
Thrombocytopenia9 (22.5)10 (8.1)0.017*16 (21.9)3 (3.3)0.001*
Hemoglobin, g/dL11.3 ± 2.212.1 ± 1.2< 0.001*11.7 ± 1.812.1 ± 1.30.036*
C3 < 90 mg/dL + C4 < 10 mg/dL14 (35)18 (14.6)< 0.001*24 (32.9)8 (8.9)0.001*
Anti-dsDNA Ab positivity20 (50)36 (29.3)0.033*36 (49.3)20 (22.2)0.004*
Proteinuria, mg/d2150.7 ± 4047.1155.4 ± 805.5< 0.001*1089.8 ± 2844.1242.7 ± 1520.5< 0.001*
SLEDAI-2K, at pregnancy7.2 ± 6.42.8 ± 3.3< 0.001*5.5 ± 5.52.2 ± 2.6< 0.001*
LLDAS5 (12.5)84 (68.3)< 0.001*22 (30.1)67 (74.4)< 0.001*
Cumulative steroid dose before pregnancy, g (prednisone-equivalent)15.14 ± 14.135.04 ± 10.59< 0.001*9.45 ± 14.816.03 ± 9.930.07
Mean steroid dose during pregnancy, mg (prednisone-equivalent)38.3 ± 157.14.5 ± 13.30.001*22.4 ± 111.23.3 ± 13.70.043*
Immunosuppressants22 (55)23 (18.7)< 0.001*27 (37)18 (20)0.09
Cyclophosphamide14 (35)10 (8.1)< 0.001*16 (21.9)8 (8.9)0.07
  • Values are mean ± SD or n (%).

  • *P < 0.05. Ab: antibody; LLDAS: Lupus Low Disease Activity State; SLE: systemic lupus erythematosus; SLEDAI-2K: SLE Disease Activity Index 2000.