Table 1.

General characteristics and treatments of pregnant women with and without SLE.

SLE, n = 163Controls, n = 596P
Age at diagnosis, yrs26.2 ± 5.7NANA
Maternal age, yrs, mean ± SD31.9 ± 4.331.8 ± 4.10.70
Follow-up period, months65.8 ± 61.3NANA
BMI, kg/m220.9 ± 3.222.3 ± 4.30.007*
Comorbidities, n (%)
    Hypertension1 (0.6)15 (2.5)0.14
    Diabetes mellitus0 (0)11 (1.8)0.08
    Thyroid disorder15 (9.2)65 (10.9)0.54
    Assisted reproductive technology10 (6.1)37 (6.2)0.61
Clinical manifestations, n (%)
    Oral ulcer12 (7.4)NANA
    Malar rash31 (19)NANA
    Photosensitivity20 (12.3)NANA
    Alopecia15 (9.2)NANA
    Arthritis34 (20.9)NANA
    Lupus nephritis29 (17.8)NANA
    Serositis2 (1.2)NANA
Laboratory finding
    Leukopenia, < 4000/mm3, n (%)22 (14)2 (0)< 0.001*
    Lymphopenia, < 1000/mm3, n (%)32 (19.6)27 (0.1)< 0.001*
    Thrombocytopenia, < 100,000/mm3, n (%)19 (11.7)3 (0)< 0.001*
    Hemoglobin, g/dL11.9 ± 1.5612.1 ± 1.260.004*
    ESR, mm/h24 ± 17.423.4 ± 13.40.24
    Serum creatinine, mg/dL0.7 ± 0.150.57 ± 0.370.97
Immunologic finding, n (%)
    ANA positivity162 (99.4)NANA
    Anti-dsDNA Ab positivity56 (34.4)NANA
    Anti-Sm Ab positivity6 (3.7)NANA
    aPL positivity30 (18.4)NANA
    APS diagnosis7 (4.3)NANA
    Low complements (C3 < 90 mg/dL or C4 < 10 mg/dL)87 (53.4)NANA
Urinalysis
    Proteinuria, mg/d660.7 ± 2304.253.2 ± 617.9< 0.001*
    Proteinuria > 0.5 g/d, n (%)22 (13.5)6 (0)< 0.001*
SLEDAI-2K, initial7.20 ± 5.04NANA
SLEPDAI-2K, at pregnancy3.80 ± 4.57NANA
LLDAS, n (%)89 (54.6)NANA
Treatment, n (%)
    Hydroxychloroquine110 (67.5)NANA
    NSAID43 (26.4)14 (0)< 0.001*
    Acetylsalicylic acid51 (31.3)3 (0)< 0.001*
    Heparin15 (9.2)3 (0)< 0.001*
Corticosteroid
    Cumulative dose before pregnancy, g (prednisone-equivalent)7.4 ± 12.240 (0)< 0.001*
    Total dose 3 months before pregnancy, mg (prednisone-equivalent)230.4 ± 394.70 (0)< 0.001*
    Mean dose during pregnancy, mg (prednisone-equivalent)11.2 ± 78.40 (0)< 0.001*
Immunosuppressant, n (%)45 (27.6)0 (0)< 0.001*
    Azathioprine22 (13.5)0 (0)< 0.001*
    Mycophenolate mofetil14 (8.6)0 (0)< 0.001*
    Cyclophosphamide24 (14.7)0 (0)< 0.001*
    Cyclosporine8 (4.9)0 (0)< 0.001*
ACEi or ARB, n (%)22 (13.5)4 (0)< 0.001*
Vitamin D, n (%)60 (36.8)16 (0)< 0.001*
  • Values are mean ± SD unless otherwise indicated.

  • *P < 0.05. Ab: antibody; ACEi: angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ANA: antinuclear antibody; aPL: antiphospholipid antibody; APS: antiphospholipid syndrome; ARB: angiotensin receptor blocker; ESR: erythrocyte sedimentation rate; LLDAS: Lupus Low Disease Activity State; NA: not applicable; NSAID: nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug; SLE: systemic lupus erythematosus; SLEDAI-2K: SLE Disease Activity Index 2000; SLEPDAI-2K: SLE Pregnancy Disease Activity Index 2000.