Table 1.

Patients’ baseline characteristics.

 New Users ofSwitchers to
Tofacitinib, n = 1031bDMARD, n = 17,803Tofacitinib, n = 1535bDMARD, n = 9849
Duration of available follow-up, yrs, mean (SD)1.70 (0.98)1.73 (1.08)1.74 (1.07)1.74 (1.1)
Demographics
Female844 (81.9)13,925 (78.2)1278 (83.3)8001 (81.2)
Age, yrs, mean (SD)56.4 (11.3)52.9 (12.0)53.9 (11.1)52.9 (11.6)
Socioeconomic status
Low192 (18.6)3279 (18.4)275 (17.9)1844 (18.7)
2nd quarter158 (15.3)3196 (18.0)313 (20.4)1932 (19.6)
3rd quarter197 (19.1)3284 (18.5)284 (18.5)1780 (18.1)
High188 (18.2)3289 (18.5)285 (18.6)1834 (18.6)
Unknown296 (28.7)4755 (26.7)378 (24.6)2459 (25.0)
Relation to Employee
Employee622 (60.3)11,245 (63.2)859 (56.0)6044 (61.4)
Spouse/dependent409 (39.7)6558 (36.8)676 (44.0)3805 (38.6)
Employment Status
Active full-time/part-time462 (44.8)8187 (46.0)784 (51.1)4871 (49.5)
Retiree240 (23.3)2853 (16.0)300 (19.6)1680 (17.1)
Other/unknown329 (31.9)6763 (38.0)451 (29.4)3298 (33.5)
Region
Northeast206 (20.0)2777 (15.6)262 (17.1)1596 (16.2)
North-central194 (18.8)3700 (20.8)289 (18.8)2019 (20.5)
South451 (43.7)7745 (43.5)690 (45.0)4143 (42.1)
West156 (15.1)3060 (17.2)257 (16.7)1891 (19.2)
Unknown24 (2.3)521 (2.9)37 (2.4)200 (2.0)
Industry
Manufacturing232 (22.5)3726 (20.9)351 (22.9)2114 (21.5)
Transportation, communications, utilities153 (14.8)1929 (10.8)191 (12.4)1152 (11.7)
Retail trade25 (2.4)528 (3.0)49 (3.2)328 (3.3)
Finance, insurance, real estate73 (7.1)1324 (7.4)132 (8.6)744 (7.6)
Services136 (13.2)2865 (16.1)264 (17.2)1659 (16.8)
Other/unknown412 (40.0)7431 (41.7)548 (35.7)3852 (39.1)
Clinical status and comorbidities
Deyo comorbidity score = 0609 (59.1)11,879 (66.7)1012 (65.9)6717 (68.2)
Pleural effusion27 (2.6)319 (1.8)32 (2.1)174 (1.8)
No. days with ambulatory visits, mean (SD)21.8 (16.6)19.9 (15.4)23.1 (17.0)22.6 (15.8)
No. days in hospital, mean (SD)0.9 (3.9)0.5 (2.6)0.7(2.8)0.5 (2.7)
Use of medications in the previous year
Azathioprine31 (3.0)318 (1.8)38 (2.5)209 (2.1)
Hydroxychloroquine257 (24.9)4751 (26.7)313 (20.4)2181 (22.1)
Leflunomide215 (20.9)2349 (13.2)274 (17.9)1633 (16.6)
Methotrexate549 (53.2)10,566 (59.3)796 (51.9)5476 (55.6)
Minocycline16 (1.6)205 (1.2)32 (2.1)108 (1.1)
Sulfasalazine115 (11.2)1814 (10.2)108 (7.0)797 (8.1)
Prednisone651 (63.1)9871 (55.4)956 (62.3)5969 (60.6)
Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs164 (15.9)2614 (14.7)232 (15.1)1543 (15.7)
> 1 different bDMARD or tofacitinib191 (12.4)656 (6.7)
Adherent to earlier medication therapy
Oral therapy
Adherent519 (50.3)7627 (42.8)760 (49.5)4680 (47.5)
Nonadherent411 (39.9)6499 (36.5)659 (42.9)4115 (41.8)
Unavailable101 (9.8)3677 (20.7)116 (7.6)1054 (10.7)
Injectable therapy
Adherent86 (8.3)915 (5.1)576 (37.5)3514 (35.7)
Nonadherent56 (5.4)1288 (7.2)307 (20.0)1804 (18.3)
Unavailable889 (86.2)15,600 (87.6)652 (42.5)4531 (46.0)
  • Data are presented as n (%) treated with this medication, unless otherwise specified. Diagnosis of ascites and use of aurothiomalate, cyclosporine, and penicillamine in the previous year are not shown due to the rarity of this use (i.e., there were < 25 users in each cohort).

  • Duration of available follow-up was measured from cohort entry until the end of enrollment, defined as a gap of 90 days or longer, or the end of the study period (December 31, 2016).

  • Users were defined as adherent to earlier medication therapy if the mean medication possession ratio for oral or injectable antihypertensive, antidiabetic, and antirheumatic medication prescribed in the 2 years before cohort entry was 80% or greater. Adherence “unknown" was assigned if the patients did not obtain any of the medications or had only 1 dispensation. See the Supplementary Materials for details (available with the online version of this article). bDMARD : biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drug.