Table 1.

Patient characteristics at enrollment.

VariablesCohort 1, 1975–1987Cohort 2, 1999–2011p
No. patients234262NA
Age at enrollment, yrs35.4 ± 15.236.1 ± 13.80.62
Sex, female205 (87.6)232 (88.5)0.75
Ethnicity< 0.001
  Black19 (8.1)52 (19.8)
  White199 (85.0)135 (51.5)
  Chinese11 (4.7)31 (11.8)
  Filipino2 (0.9)16 (6.1)
  Others3 (1.3)28 (10.7)
Disease duration at enrollment, mos2.9 ± 3.52.6 ± 3.00.31
SLEDAI-2K at enrollment10.0 ± 9.09.8 ± 7.80.81
Nephritis75 (32.1)71 (27.1)0.23
Vasculitis33 (14.1)23 (8.8)0.06
Corticosteroids114 (48.7)163 (62.2)0.003
  Corticosteroid dose, mg/day33.4 ± 28.730.6 ± 20.30.34
Antimalarials44 (18.8)117 (44.7)< 0.001
Immunosuppressives12 (5.1)61 (23.3)< 0.001
Hypertension41 (17.5)70 (26.7)0.01
Hypercholesterolemia70 (29.9)108 (41.2)0.009
Diabetes2 (0.9)9 (3.4)0.05
Smoking56 (24.1)37 (14.4)0.006
  • Values are n (%) or mean ± SD unless otherwise specified. SLEDAI-2K: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index 2000; NA: not applicable.