Table 4.

Adjusted patient-reported health outcomes of TCM users and nonusers.

PROMIS DomainTCM UsersNonusersp
Sleep disturbance50 (48–53)49 (47–52)0.55
Anxiety50 (48–53)46 (43–49)< 0.01
Depression51 (48–54)47 (44–50)0.01
Pain interference59 (56–61)57 (54–59)0.17
Fatigue54 (51–56)51 (48–54)< 0.01
Physical function43 (40–45)45 (42–47)0.13
Ability to participate in social roles and activities55 (53–58)59 (56–61)0.01
  • Values are mean (95% CI).

  • Using generalized linear model with each PROMIS domain as the outcome and TCM user status as the predictor, PROMIS T scores were adjusted for variables significantly different between TCM users and nonusers in bivariate analysis, including age, sex, employment status, years lived in the United States, years since rheumatic disease diagnosis, Medication Regimen Complexity Index, reporting Western medications to be effective, reporting side effects from Western medications, and believing that TCM works. TCM: traditional Chinese medicine; PROMIS: Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System.