Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of the participants.

CharacteristicAll Participants, n = 252Participants*, n = 130p**
Age, yrs62.2 ± 8.362.5 ± 8.10.54
Female, n (%)199 (79)111 (85.4)0.01
Body mass index, kg/m228.7 ± 6.129.0 ± 6.30.34
Index hip right, n (%)143 (56.7)72 (55.4)0.65
Race, n (%)
  White242 (96)123 (95)0.53
  Others10 (4)7 (5)
Education, n (%)
  Less than high school37 (14.7)21 (16.2)0.61
  Completed high school58 (23)27 (20.7)
  Higher than high school157 (62.3)82 (63.1)
Occupational physical workload level, n (%)
  Sedentary (mostly sitting)111 (44)52 (40)0.12
  Standing occupation, physically light90 (35.7)51 (39.2)
  Manual work47 (18.7)24 (18.5)
  Heavy manual work4 (1.6)3 (2.3)
Baseline pain level (0–10)
  Mildest2.3 ± 1.92.5 ± 2.10.02
  Worst7.6 ± 1.98.0 ± 1.80.02
Night pain level (0–4)1.8 ± 1.01.9 ± 1.00.03
Hip injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score
  Pain55.5 ± 17.352.0 ± 18.00.001
  Symptoms53.0 ± 19.450.5 ± 20.40.03
  Activities of daily living59.4 ± 21.754.7 ± 21.9< 0.001
  Sports/recreation36.5 ± 27.132.7 ± 26.60.02
  Quality of life41.5 ± 19.638.1 ± 20.70.004
International Physical Activity Questionnaire score (range 1–3); median (IQR)3 (2)3 (2)0.53
  • Data are mean ± SD unless otherwise indicated.

  • * With both case and control periods.

  • ** Independent sample t test, chi-square test, and nonparametric test were performed between participants with both case/control periods (n = 130) and those without (n = 122). IQR: interquartile range.