Table 3.

Variables associated with low disease activity state (LDAS) by univariable analyses.

CharacteristicLDAS During Followup
Yes (n = 314), n (%) or median (25th–75th percentiles)No (n = 588), n (%) or median (25th–75th percentiles)p
Sociodemographic
Sex0.4250
  Male30 (9.6)63 (10.7)
  Female284 (90.4)525 (89.3)
Age at diagnosis, yrs28, 21–3925, 19–340.0024
Age at first symptom, yrs27, 19–3724, 18–330.0095
Age at entry, yrs28, 21–3926, 20–340.0020
Ethnic group0.8450
  White141 (44.9)227 (38.8)
  Mestizo129 (41.1)249 (42.6)
  African Latin American37 (11.8)84 (14.4)
  Other7 (2.2)25 (4.3)
Socioeconomic status0.0099
  High/middle high39 (12.5)42 (7.1)
  Middle97 (31.2)156 (26.5)
  Middle low/low175 (56.3)390 (66.3)
Residence0.1767
  Urban291 (93.0)526 (90.1)
  Rural22 (7.0)58 (9.9)
Medical coverage0.3530
  None36 (11.5)99 (16.9)
  Partial83 (26.5)144 (24.6)
  Full194 (62.0)342 (58.5)
Education, yrs0.0073
  0–786 (27.9)178 (31.9)
  8–12134 (43.5)266 (47.7)
  ≥ 1388 (28.6)114 (20.4)
Disease duration at entry, mos0.4751
  Entered at diagnosis178 (56.7)367 (62.4)
  Up to 647 (15.0)85 (14.5)
  6 to 1238 (12.1)63 (10.7)
  13 to 2451 (16.2)73 (12.4)
Clinical characteristics at entry
General manifestations216 (68.8)436 (74.1)0.0065
Musculoskeletal294 (93.6)519 (88.3)0.2147
Mucocutaneous269 (85.7)531 (90.3)0.0365
Ocular35 (11.1)47 (8.0)0.2817
Lung10 (3.2)30 (5.1)0.0611
Cardiovascular89 (28.3)209 (35.5)0.0682
Renal108 (34.4)290 (49.3)0.0003
Neurological56 (17.8)125 (21.3)0.4050
Hematological204 (65.0)405 (68.9)0.2707
Immunological197/251 (78.5)386/474 (81.4)0.2052
Treatments at entry
Antimalarials108 (34.4)171 (29.1)0.2091
Prednisone (higher dose before baseline)0.0252
  None139 (44.3)288 (49.0)
  Low (≤ 7.5 mg/day)7 (2.2)9 (1.5)
  Medium (> 7.5 ≤ 15 mg/day)40 (12.7)43 (7.3)
  High (> 15 < 60 mg/day)84 (26.8)172 (29.3)
  Very high (≥ 60 mg/day)44 (14.0)76 (12.9)
Immunosuppressive drugs65 (20.7)101 (17.2)0.3585
Disease status (SLEDAI) at entry8, 5–1311, 6–17< 0.0001
  • Data are n (%) or median, 25th–75th percentiles. SLEDAI: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index.