Table 1.

Crude OR and 95% CI for associations of 4 WHO dimensions of adherence with adherence ≥ 80% in 1956 Kaiser Permanente patients with SLE and 2 recent prior fills of hydroxychloroquine, Northern California, 2006–14.

CharacteristicsAdherence ≥ 80%, n = 1132Adherence < 80%, n = 824Crude OR95% CIp
Socioeconomic status (block-group)
  Median household income, thousands
    15–5426.928.71.00Ref.
    55–7423.123.71.210.94–1.560.13
    75–9924.725.31.040.81–1.330.75
    100–25025.322.31.040.81–1.340.74
  Percent household income below poverty level
    0–3.024.525.51.00Ref.
    3.1–6.525.923.51.030.80–1.330.80
    6.6–12.724.725.90.990.77–1.280.96
    12.8–10024.925.11.150.89–1.480.30
  Percent unemployed
    0–3.726.224.81.00Ref.
    3.8–5.425.025.60.900.70–1.150.40
    5.5–7.223.623.20.970.75–1.250.79
    7.3–2225.226.40.920.72–1.190.54
  Percent high school graduate
    0–1326.325.01.00Ref.
    14–1921.723.51.060.81–1.380.68
    20–2830.131.80.900.71–1.140.37
    29–5921.919.70.870.67–1.130.30
Patient-related factors
  Age, yrs
    ≤ 3929.434.21.00Ref.
    40–4921.026.60.920.72–1.170.50
    50–6432.025.81.441.14–1.820.00
    65–8917.613.41.531.16–2.030.00
  Sex
    Male10.59.01.00Ref.
    Female89.591.00.840.62–1.140.26
  Race/ethnicity
    African American15.216.90.680.52–0.89< 0.01
    Asian/Pacific Islander19.721.20.700.54–0.90< 0.01
    Hispanic14.119.20.550.42–0.72< 0.0001
    White41.030.81.00Ref.
    Other/unknown*2.23.20.630.46–0.86< 0.001
  Language
    English93.092.31.00Ref.
    Other7.07.70.910.64–1.280.57
Condition-related factors in the year before index
  Charlson comorbidity index
    083.684.51.00Ref.
    19.26.91.340.96–1.880.09
    ≥ 27.28.60.850.61–1.180.34
  Rheumatology visits
    0–124.029.61.00Ref.
    226.325.11.291.01–1.650.04
    ≥ 349.745.31.351.09–1.680.01
  Hospitalization for any cause
    No81.682.01.00Ref.
    Yes18.418.01.030.81–1.300.82
  eGFR,** ml/min/1.73 m2
    30–590.71.50.530.22–1.320.17
    60–8929.121.11.521.23–1.890.0001
    ≥ 9070.277.41.00Ref.
Therapy-related factors in the year before index
  Medications (yes vs no)
    Prednisone58.056.91.050.87–1.260.62
    Mycophenolate mofetil15.618.50.810.64–1.030.09
    Azathioprine11.811.51.030.78–1.360.83
    ACE inhibitor20.118.31.120.89–1.410.32
  • Values are % unless otherwise specified.

  • * Includes multiracial, Native American, and unknown.

  • ** Missing for 65 patients. WHO: World Health Organization; SLE: systemic lupus erythematosus; eGFR: estimated glomerular filtration rate; ACE: angiotensin-converting enzyme.