Table 1.

Characteristics of included studies.

StudyStudy PopulationNo. ParticipantsInterventionComparatorMRI Field StrengthSequencesMRI SitesScoring Systems
Cross-sectional studies
  Fournié, et al12AS fulfilling Amor criteria and PsA based on seronegative joint disease with psoriasis8 (5; 3)MRINANAT1W GdAnterior chest wallQualitative
  McGonagle, et al16SpA with plantar fasciitis; mechanically induced plantar fasciitis28 (17; 11)MRINA0.5; 1.5T1W; SPIRPlantar fasciaSemiquantitative
  Olivieri, et al19SpA with dactylitis6MRINA1.5T1W; T2W FS; GRE-T2WFinger tendon insertionsSemiquantitative
  Tan, et al24DIP joint PsA; DIP joint OA; healthy subjects30 (10; 10; 10)MRINA1.5T1W; T2W FS; PD; 3DGE; T1W FS GdDIP jointsQualitative
  McQueen, et al17PsA10MRINA0.6T1W; T1W Gd; STIR2nd–5th fingerSemiquantitative
  Tan, et al22DIP joint PsA; DIP joint OA; healthy subjects30 (10; 10; 10)MRINA1.5T1W; T2W FS; PD; 3DGE; T1W FS GdDIP jointsQualitative
  Marzo-Ortega, et al15SpA; RA20 (10; 10)MRINA1.5T1W; DCE-MRI; SPIR FS GdMCP jointsQualitative
  Maksymowicz, et al14SpA or suspected SpA35MRI T1W FS GdMRI T2W FS1.5T1W; T1W FS; T2W FS; T1W FS GdEnthesitis of SIJ ligamentsSemiquantitative
  Feydy, et al28SpA; controls hospitalized low-back pain75 (51; 24)MRINA1.5T1W; STIRHeel enthesitisQualitative
  Althoff, et al9SpA75MRINA1.5T1W; STIRWhole-bodyQualitative
  Aydin, et al10SpA with swollen knee21MRIUS1.5T1W; T2 SPIR; TI SPIR; TI SPIR GdKnee enthesesQualitative
  Braum, et al11Suspected inflammatory joint disease69MRIClinical1.5T1W; T1W FS Gd; STIRCollateral ligaments of finger jointsQualitative
  Paramarta, et al20Knee or ankle arthritis: SpA; RA; crystal arthritis41 (13; 20; 8)MRINA1.5T1W; T2W FS; STIR; T1W FS GdKnee and ankle enthesesQualitative
  Ramírez, et al21Greater trochanter pain: SpA/RA/no inflammatory disease40MRINA1.5T1W; T2W FSGreater femoral trochanterQualitative
  Poggenborg, et al2PsA; SpA; healthy subjects48 (18; 18; 12)MRINA3T1W; STIRWhole-bodySemiquantitative
  Tan, et al23PsA with dactylitis; healthy subjects22 (12; 10)MRINA1.5T2W FS; T1W; TSE; T1W FS GdFingers/toesQualitative
  Agten, et al6Suspected SpA68MRI T1W GdMRI STIR1.5; 3.0T1W FS Gd; STIRT12-S1 interspinous and supraspinous ligamentsQualitative
  Giraudo, et al13Suspected SpA106MRI T2W; MRI PDT1W Gd3T2W; PD; T1W; T1W FS GdSIJ anterior and posterior ligamentsQualitative
  Aivazoglou, et al8SpA16MRINA1.5T1W FS; T1W FS Gd; STIREnthesitis of SIJ ligamentsQualitative
  Maldonado, et al7SpA40MRIUS; CR1.5T1W; T1W FS Gd; T2W FS or STIRAchilles tendon insertion; plantar fasciaQualitative
Case control studies
  Olivieri, et al18SpA fulfilling Amor’s criteria and showing severe Achilles enthesitis19 pathologic 9 normal tendonsMRIUS0.5T1W, PD, T2WAnkleQualitative
  Lambert, et al29AS; healthy subjects111 (17; 94)MRINA1.5T1W; T2W; PD; T2W FS or STIRShoulderQualitative
  Erdem, et al27AS; healthy subjects33 (23; 10)MRINA1.5T1W; T2W; STIRHeel enthesitisQualitative
  Wiell, et al32PsA; RA; healthy subjects25 (15; 5; 5)MRIUS0.6T1W; STIR; T1W GdFingers/toesQualitative
  Emad, et al26PsA/AS/ReA/IBD/Skin psoriasis; healthy subjects76 (56; 20)MRINA1.5T1W; T1W GdKnee enthesesQualitative
  Weckbach, et al30PsA30MRIClinical1.5STIR, VIBE; VIBE GdWhole-bodyQualitative
  Wiell, et al31SpA; non-SpA; healthy subjects37 (12; 15; 10)MRIUS0.6T1W; STIR; T1W GdAchilles tendon and enthesisQualitative
  Chen, et al25PsA; healthy subjects16 (9; 7)MRI 3D UTE ConesMRI T1W33D UTE Cones; T1WAchilles tendonQualitative
Cohort studies
  Godfrin, et al35Entheseal pain at multiple sites33MRIClinical1.5T1W; T2W; T1W FS Gd and/or STIRNot describedQualitative
  Eshed, et al34SpA with hindfoot pain27MRINA0.2; 1.5T1W; STIR; T1W FS Gd; T1W GRE FSHeel enthesitisQualitative
  Karpitschka, et al37AS10MRINA1.5T1W; STIRWhole-bodyQualitative
  Huang, et al36AS58MRICR; Clinical1.5T2W; T1W; STIR; T1W FS GdHipQualitative
  Althoff, et al33SpA41MRIClinical1.5T1W; STIRWhole-bodyQualitative
  Marzo-Ortega, et al38SpA10MRINA1.5T1W; T2W FS; T1W FS GdDepending on symptomsQualitative
  Tan, et al43AS fulfilling modified New York criteria9MRINA1.5T1, TSE, STIRSIJ and spine of each patientSemiquantitative
  de Hooge, et al42Chronic back pain127MRI T1W FS GdMRI STIR1.5T1W; T1W FS Gd; STIRSIJ enthesitis/capsulitisQualitative
Randomized controlled trials
  Dougados, et al39SpA with heel enthesitis24MRINANot reportedT1W; STIRHeel enthesitisQualitative
  Song, et al41SpA76MRINA1.5T1W; STIRWhole-bodyQualitative
  Krabbe, et al40SpA49MRINA3T1W; STIRWhole-bodySemiquantitative
  • Numbers in parentheses denote no. participants in each group of study population. AS: ankylosing spondylitis; SpA: spondyloarthritis; PsA: psoriatic arthritis; RA: rheumatoid arthritis; OA: osteoarthritis; MCP: metacarpophalangeal joint; DIP: distal interphalangeal joint; SIJ: sacroiliac joints; T1W: T1 -weighted; T2W: T2-weighted; Gd: gadolinium; FS: fat suppressed; SPIR: spectral pre-saturation with inversion recovery; GRE: gradient recalled echo; PD: proton density; 3D-GE: 3D gradient echo; STIR: short-tau inversion recovery; DCE: dynamic contrast enhanced; TSE: turbo spin echo; VIBE: volumetric interpolated breath-hold sequence; UTE: quantitative ultrashort echo time; US: ultrasound; CR: conventional radiograph; ReA: reactive arthritis; IBD: inflammatory bowel disease; MRI: magnetic resonance imaging; NA: not applicable.