Table 2.

Psychometric properties and quality scores of selected studies (n = 38).

StudyFace Validity*Content Validity*Construct Validity*Criterion Validity*Reliability*Responsiveness*Quality Scoring
Cross-sectional studies
  McGonagle, et al16YESYESNONOYESNO9
  Olivieri, et al19YESNONONONONO7
  Tan, et al24YESNONONOYESNO7
  McQueen, et al17YESYESNONOYESNO8
  Tan, et al22NONONOYESNONO5
  Marzo-Ortega, et al15NONONONOYESNO7
  Maksymowicz, et al14NONONONONONO6
  Althoff, et al9YESYESNONOYESNO7
  Aydin, et al10YESYESYESNOYESNO8
  Braum, et al11YESYESYESNONONO7
  Ramírez, et al21YESNONONONONO8
  Paramarta, et al20YESYESNONOYESNO7
  Poggenborg, et al2YESYESYESNOYESNO10
  Tan, et al23YESYESNONOYESNO7
  Giraudo, et al13YESNONONOYESNO7
  Agten, et al6NONOYESNOYESNO8
  Maldonado, et al7YESYESYESNOYESNO7
  Aivazoglou, et al8YESNOYESNONONO7
Case control studies
  Olivieri, et al18YESYESYESNONONO6
  Lambert, et al29YESYESNONOYESNO6
  Erdem, et al27YESYESNONOYESNO5
  Wiell, et al32YESNONONONONO8
  Emad, et al26YESNONONOYESNO6
  Weckbach, et al30YESNOYESNOYESNO7
  Feydy, et al28YESNONONOYESNO8
  Wiell, et al31YESYESYESNOYESNO9
  Chen, et al25YESYESYESNONONO6
Cohort studies
  Godfrin, et al35YESNOYESNOYESNO6
  Eshed, et al34YESYESNONOYESNO6
  Huang, et al36YESNOYESNOYESNO9
  Karpitschk, et al37YESYESYESNOYESYES9
  Althoff, et al33YESYESNONOYESNO8
  Marzo-Ortega, et al38YESYESYESNOYESYES8
  Tan, et al43YESNONONONOYES8
  de Hooge, et al42YESNOYESNONOYES9
Randomized controlled trials
  Dougados, et al39NONONONONONO7
  Song, et al41YESNONONOYESYES9
  Krabbe, et al40YESYESNONOYESYES11
  • * Face validity was defined as expert opinion on the credibility of scoring system used in each article to measure enthesitis. Content validity estimated the reliability of the scoring system used in each study to measure the full spectrum of outcome – inflammatory and structural changes. Construct validity was achieved when MRI evaluation of enthesitis correlated with the following concepts of enthesitis: (1) clinical assessment of enthesitis using a validated enthesitis score (e.g., MASES), (2) ultrasound or radiographic assessment of enthesitis sites, and/or (3) comparison of different sequences of MRI in assessing enthesitis. Criterion validity was achieved when MRI evaluation of enthesitis correlated with a gold standard (e.g., histology). Reliability was defined in studies mentioning inter-rater reliability measures of scoring consistency between and within MRI readers, e.g., inter/intraclass correlation coefficients or ϰ statistics. Responsiveness was achieved in studies documenting statistically significant changes in relation to treatment introduction or change. MRI: magnetic resonance imaging; MASES: Maastricht Ankylosing Spondylitis Enthesitis Score.