Table 2.

Comparison of properties of Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire (MHQ), Australian/Canadian Hand Osteoarthritis Index (AUSCAN), and Functional Index for Hand Osteoarthritis (FIHOA).

VariablesMHQ10AUSCAN12FIHOA13
Domain: Pain
  No. items55
  Floor and ceiling effects*No (1.8% with lowest score, 0% with highest score)No (1.8% with lowest score, 1.3% with highest score)
  Aspect of pain assessedFrequency of experiencing pain in several situations (in general, during sleep or ADL) and whether it affects the respondent’s happinessPain severity during rest and several tasks (lifting, squeezing, turning, gripping)
  Specific other commentsNoNo
Domain: Function
  No. itemsOverall hand function scale: 10; ADL scale: 17910
  Floor and ceiling effects*No (subscales overall hand function/ADL: 0%/0% with lowest score, 1.3%/3.1% with highest score)No (1.8% with lowest score, 0.3% with highest score)No (4.2% with lowest score, 0% with highest score)
  Aspect of function assessedOverall hand function scale: general questions of hand function, movement, strength, and sensation.
ADL scale: ability to perform certain tasks (turning doorknob, picking up coin, holding glass of water, turning key in lock, holding heavy object with one hand, opening jar, buttoning shirt, using cutlery, carrying large and heavy objects, washing dishes, washing hair, tying shoelaces or knots); 4/12 grip strength tasks, 3/12 fine motor skills tasks.
Ability to perform certain tasks (turning doorknobs, holding heavy object with one hand, buttoning shirt, using cutlery, carrying large and heavy objects, turning taps, fastening jewelry, wringing cloth); 4/9 grip strength tasks, 2/9 fine motor skills tasks.Ability to perform certain tasks [turning key in lock, holding heavy objects, buttoning shirt, using cutlery, tying shoelaces or knots, cutting with scissors, clenching fist, sewing (women)/using screwdriver (men), writing for a long time, accepting a handshake]; 1/10 grip strength tasks, 4/10 fine motor skills tasks.
  Specific other commentsSeparate assessment of left and right handNoSome items may be culturally challenging (accepting a handshake), or outdated (writing for more than 10 min; women sew and men use a screwdriver)
General aspects
  Recall period1 week48 hNot specified
  Other available subscales (domain)Work performance (N/A); aesthetics (structural damage); satisfaction (N/A)Stiffness (N/A)N/A
  Total no. items581510
  Method of scoringIncludes normalizing to 0–100 scale, presented in user manualDependent on version used (Likert scale, VAS), presented in user manualSimple addition of scores, user guide available online
  CostsFreely available for academic or nonprofit institutions, permission needed before use (online application form)Copyrighted, payment of fee, and permission needed before useNo
  Available in multiple languagesYesYesYes
  Interpretability commentsPain scale must be interpreted in opposite direction compared to other subscalesNoNo
  • * Data reviewed in HOSTAS cohort (n = 383), Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands. ADL: activities of daily living; N/A: not available; VAS: visual analog scale.