Table 3.

Differences between reclassified and non-reclassified patients with SLE into the very high CV risk category following carotid ultrasound assessment.

VariablesReclassification into Very High–Risk Category after Carotid UltrasoundAdjusted Model for Age + CV Factors
No (n = 180)Yes (n = 94)pOR (95% CI), p
cIMT, mm0.615 ± 0.0970.671 ± 0.121< 0.001
Demographics
  Male, n (%)7 (4)6 (6)0.37
  Age, yrs48 ± 1157 ± 9< 0.001
  BMI, mg/cm227 ± 628 ± 60.25
  Waist circumference, cm91 ± 1494 ± 130.077
  Systolic pressure, mmHg126 ± 20131 ± 180.015
  Diastolic pressure, mmHg84 ± 5382 ± 100.67
CV risk factors, n (%)
  Hypertension56 (31)53 (56)< 0.001
  Dyslipidemia119 (66)69 (73)0.27
  Current smoking41 (23)27 (29)0.30
  Antihypertensive treatment53 (29)50 (53)< 0.001
  Diabetes6 (3)8 (9)0.065
Analytical data
  CRP, mg/l2.00 (0.90–4.90)1.90 (0.70–3.80)0.29
  Cholesterol, mg/dl194 ± 40195 ± 370.73
  Triglycerides, mg/dl119 ± 35140 ± 1000.11
  LDL, mg/dl108 ± 35106 ± 300.64
  HDL, mg/dl62 ± 1861 ± 220.80
  apoA, mg/dl179 ± 37180 ± 390.88
  apoB-I, mg/dl95 ± 2598 ± 210.31
  apoB/apoA index0.54 ± 0.160.57 ± 0.170.33
  Atherogenic index3.36 ± 1.013.50 ± 1.240.42
SLE-related data
  Disease duration, yrs16 ± 921 ± 11< 0.0011.04 (1.00–1.07), 0.025
  SLICC > 0, n (%)115 (64)81 (86)< 0.0012.48 (1.15–5.34), 0.020
  SLICC CV– > 0, n (%)106 (39)76 (28)< 0.0012.14 (1.04–4.44), 0.040
  log SLICC0.70 ± 0.621.04 ± 0.60< 0.0011.63 (1.01–2.64), 0.045
  log SLICC CV–0.64 ± 0.600.95 ± 0.57< 0.0011.56 (0.95–2.64), 0.077
  log Katz1.19 ± 0.471.19 ± 0.550.551.00 (0.87–1.16), 0.99
  Katz index ≥ 3, n (%)71 (39)32 (34)0.430.69 (0.37–1.29), 0.25
  log SLEDAI1.07 ± 1.071.15 ± 0.980.651.06 (0.80–1.41), 0.67
  SLEDAI activity categories, %
    No activity73 (41)33 (35)0.20
    Mild (1–5)48 (27)36 (38)1.66 (0.84–3.28), 0.15
    Moderate (6–10)32 (18)15 (16)1.22 (0.54–2.83), 0.65
    High (> 10)14 (8)6 (6)0.90 (0.26–3.05), 0.86
  SLEDAI > 0, n (%)*94 (52)57 (61)0.291.41 (0.77–2.58), 0.27
  ANA profile
    Anti-DNA–positive101 (56)63 (67)0.401.71 (0.80–3.66), 0.17
    ENA-positive51 (28)14 (15)0.260.64 (0.20–2.11), 0.47
    Anti-Ro66 (37)24 (26)0.180.62 (0.31–1.23), 0.17
    Anti-La29 (16)13 (14)0.801.15 (0.49–2.69), 0.75
    Anti-RNP43 (24)29 (31)0.172.20 (1.12–4.29), 0.022
    Anti-Sm23 (13)11 (12)0.831.39 (0.60–3.21), 0.45
  Antiphospholipid autoantibodies
    Lupus anticoagulant43 (24)23 (24)0.711.29 (0.65–2.56), 0.47
    aCL IgM23 (13)10 (11)0.681.13 (0.45–2.84), 0.79
    aCL IgG39 (22)17 (18)0.571.04 (0.50–2.16), 0.91
    Anti-β2 glycoprotein IgM17 (9)10 (11)0.641.21 (0.44–3.28), 0.71
    Anti-β2 glycoprotein IgG29 (16)10 (11)0.270.84 (0.34–2.09), 0.71
  Rheumatoid factor, n (%)18 (10)15 (16)0.111.26 (0.51–3.10), 0.61
  C3, mg/dl95 ± 25107 ± 270.0011.01 (1.00–1.03), 0.043
  C4, mg/dl17 ± 818 ± 80.291.01 (0.97–1.05), 0.75
  Leukocytes, cells/mm35835 ± 32606463 ± 24480.111.00 (1.00–1.00), 0.55
  Hypocomplementemia, n (%)87 (48)55 (59)0.181.46 (0.76–2.78), 0.25
  Current prednisone, n (%)85 (47)45 (48)0.860.95 (0.53–1.69), 0.85
  Prednisone, mg/day, n (%)5 (5–7.5)5 (5–7.5)0.810.96 (0.84–1.10), 0.58
  DMARD, n (%)138 (77)72 (77)0.891.40 (0.71–2.77), 0.33
  Hydroxychloroquine, n (%)128 (71)61 (65)0.341.02 (0.55–1.89), 0.95
  Methotrexate, n (%)17 (9)15 (16)0.111.33 (0.57–3.10), 0.51
  Mycophenolate mofetil, n (%)19 (11)3 (3)0.0330.30 (0.08–1.11), 0.07
  Azathioprine, n (%)18 (10)14 (15)0.231.79 (0.76–4.17), 0.18
  Rituximab, n (%)5 (3)2 (2)0.751.13 (0.19–6.73), 0.89
  Belimumab, n (%)3 (2)1 (1)0.69
  Cyclophosphamide, n (%)0 (0)1 (1)0.078
  • Values in bold face are statistically significant. Adjusted variables were age, hypertension (binary variable), waist circumference, diabetes, and triglycerides. Two patients’ reclassification information was not available (n = 274). Data represent mean ± SD or median (IQR) when data were not normally distributed.

  • * SLEDAI categories were defined as follows: 0 (no activity); 1–5 (mild); 6–10 moderate; > 10 (high or very high). SLE: systemic lupus erythematosus; CV: cardiovascular; cIMT: carotid intima-media wall thickness; BMI: body mass index; CRP: C-reactive protein; LDL: low-density lipoprotein; DMARD: disease-modifying antirheumatic drug; aCL: anticardiolipin antibodies; HDL: high-density lipoprotein; ANA: antinuclear antibodies; ENA: extractible nuclear antibodies; SLEDAI: SLE Disease Activity Index; SLICC: Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index; SLICC CV– : SLICC calculated without CV items; apoA: apolipoprotein A; IQR: interquartile range.