Table 4.

Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to identify baseline associates of ≥ 15% decrease of GLS at followup.

N = 204Univariate AnalysisMultivariate Analysis
Baseline model+ Lateral E′ ≤ 10 cm/s+ Elevated sPAP+ TAPSE
OR (95% CI)pOR (95% CI)pOR (95% CI)pOR (95% CI)pOR (95% CI)p
Age, yrs, mean ± SD1.016 (0.99–1.04)0.236
Female, n (%)0.725 (0.300–1.75)0.475
Time since Raynaud symptoms, yrs1.006 (0.977–1.036)0.674
Time since non-Raynaud’s symptoms, yrs0.999 (0.943–1.058)0.969
Cardiovascular medication
ACEi/ARB1.893 (0.913–3.925)0.086
Beta-blocker1.382 (0.360–5.298)0.637
Ca2+ channel-blocker1.064 (0.516–2.194)0.867
Diuretics1.141 (0.357–3.640)0.824
Immunosuppressive medication
Corticosteroids2.843 (1.149–7.038)0.0241.543 (0.501–4.755)0.450
Cyclophosphamide4.706 (0.640–34.585)0.128
Methotrexate1.918 (0.772–4.764)0.160
Azathioprine1.000 (0.500–1.434)0.998
mRSS1.020 (0.98–1.06)0.346
mRSS > 151.863 (0.62–5.64)0.271
Arthritis2.359 (0.88–6.31)0.087
Proximal muscle weakness4.176 (1.67–10.45)0.0023.688 (1.33–10.24)0.0123.437 (1.13–10.43)0.0204.033 (1.42–11.43)0.0093.641 (1.31–10.12)0.013
Lung fibrosis1.426 (0.70–2.89)0.327
eGFR < 60 ml/min/m20.227 (0.03–1.66)0.227
Elevated NT-proBNP3.840 (1.65–8.94)0.0021.924 (0.76–4.88)0.1681.563 (0.57–4.30)0.3881.989 (0.77–5.10)0.1531.735 (0.67–4.47)0.255
Decreased FEV1%1.576 (0.53–4.67)0.412
Decreased FVC%2.466 (1.05–5.81)0.039
Decreased DLCO%4.750 (1.89–11.95)0.0013.617 (1.36–9.64)0.0103.621 (1.25–10.51)0.0493.088 (1.14–8.38)0.0273.377 (1.24–9.19)0.017
Decreased VO2max%2.588 (1.19–5.65)0.017
E/A ratio0.319 (0.10–0.98)0.047
Lateral E′ ≤ 10 cm/s2.807 (1.37–5.74)0.0052.378 (1.07–5.27)0.033
Elevated sPAP3.064 (1.03–9.12)0.0442.521 (0.78–8.16)0.123
TAPSE, mm0.899 (0.81–0.99)0.0370.897 (0.80–1.00)0.060
  • GLS: global longitudinal strain; sPAP: systolic pulmonary arterial pressure; TAPSE: tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion; ACEi: angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB: angiotensin II receptor blocker; mRSS: modified Rodnan skin score; eGFR: estimated glomerular filtration rate; NT-proBNP: N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, cutoff value 300 ng/l; FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1s, percent of predicted value, cutoff value 70%; FVC: forced vital capacity, percent of predicted value, cutoff value 80%; E/A: peak early (E) and late (A) diastolic velocities; sPAP: systolic pulmonary arterial pressure; TAPSE: tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion.