Table 1.

Demographics, AM duration, ECG, heart imaging, biomarkers, and outcome of AMIC patients.

PatientAge, yrsSLE (yrs)/AM Duration (yrs)/AM TypeECGTTEcMRIBiomarkersOutcome
17444/13/HCQRBBB, LAFBLVH, RVH, LA, RA, IVSH, low LVEF, DDLVH, RVH, LA, RA, IVSH BNP, cTnI, CPKRegression of LVH, steady decrease of biomarkers over 2 yrs, conduction abnormalities deteriorated with first-degree AVB, and atrial fibrillation
26822/22/CQRBBB, LAFBLVH, RVH, LA, RA, IVSH, DDLVH, RVH, LA, RA, IVSH, LGEBNP, cTnI, CPKRegression of LVH, steady decrease of biomarkers over 2 yrs, conduction abnormalities, and pacemaker insertion 18 mos after CQ cessation
36553/45/HCQNormalLVH, IVSH, DDLVH, LA, IVSH, LGEBNP, cTnI, CPKNo significant regression of hypertrophy after 6 mos, decrease of heart biomarkers after 9 mos
45938/19/HCQNormalLVH, IVSH, LA, RA, DDLVH, IVSHBNP, cTnISlight regression of hypertrophy after 6 mos, decrease of heart biomarkers
57427/24/HCQFirst-degree AVB, atrial flutterLVH, IVSH, LA, DDLVH, RVH, IVSH, LA, RABNP, cTnI, CPKPatient died from refractory heart failure, complicated with septic shock
65438/22/HCQLVHLVH, IVSHLVH, IVSHcTnI, CPKBiomarkers decreased 9 mos after drug cessation
74932/23/CQRBBBLVH, RVH, IVSH, LA, DDLVH, RVH, IVSH, LA, LGEBNP, cTnI, CPKRegression of hypertrophy, all biomarkers normalized after 18 mos
8609/9/HCQRBBB, cAVBLVH, IVSH, DDNDBNP, cTnI, CPKBiomarkers decreased after 9 mos
  • AM: antimalarials; AMIC: AM-induced cardiomyopathy; HCQ: hydroxychloroquine; CQ: chloroquine; ECG: electrocardiogram; SLE: systemic lupus erythematosus; RBBB: right bundle branch block; LAFB: left anterior fascicular block; TTE: transthoracic echocardiogram; LVH: left ventricular hypertrophy; RVH: right ventricular hypertrophy; IVSH: interventricular septum hypertrophy; LA: left atrium dilatation; RA: right atrium; LVEF: left ventricular ejection fraction; DD: diastolic dysfunction; cMRI: cardiac magnetic resonance imaging; LGE: late gadolinium enhancement; BNP: brain natriuretic peptide; cTnI: cardiac troponin I; CPK: creatine phosphokinase; AVB: atrioventricular block; cAVB: complete AVB; ND: not done.