Table 2.

Comparison of baseline clinical variables between patients with ≥ 15% decrease of GLS versus < 15% decrease at followup.

N = 204< 15% Decrease GLS, n = 165≥ 15% Decrease GLS, n = 39p
Age, mean ± SD52 ± 1355 ± 140.236
Female, n (%)139 (84)31 (80)0.474
Time since Raynaud symptoms, yrs, median (IQR)9 (4–19)12 (5–19)0.538
Time since non-Raynaud symptoms, yrs, median (IQR)4 (2–10)5 (1–10)0.999
Cardiovascular medication, n (%)
  ACEi/ARB56 (34)18 (46)0.083
  Beta-blocker10 (6)3 (8)0.636
  Ca2+ channel-blocker74 (45)17 (44)0.867
  Diuretics16 (10)4 (10)0.824
Immunosuppressive medication, n (%)
  Corticosteroids17 (10)9 (23)0.020
  Cyclophosphamide2 (1)2 (5)0.096
  Methotrexate21 (13)8 (21)0.155
  Azathioprine10 (6)3 (8)0.126
mRSS, median (IQR)2 (0.0–5.0)4 (1.5–9.5)0.177
mRSS > 15, n (%)12 (7)5 (13)0.265
Arthritis, n (%)14 (9)7 (18)0.080
Proximal muscle weakness, n (%)13 (8)10 (26)0.001
Lung fibrosis, n (%)58 (35)17 (44)0.326
6-min walking distance, m, mean ± SD517 ± 127515 ± 1320.966
eGFR < 60 ml/min/m2, n (%)2 (1)2 (5)0.113
Elevated NT-proBNP, n (%)18 (11)12 (31)0.001
Elevated CRP, n (%)16 (10)4 (10)0.916
Elevated ESR, n (%)59 (36)16 (41)0.612
Elevated CPK, n (%)104 (63)29 (74)0.182
ANA-positive, n (%)151 (92)34 (87)0.987
Decreased FEV1%, n (%)14 (9)5 (13)0.409
Decreased FVC%, n (%)20 (12)10 (26)0.035
Decreased DLCO%, n (%)106 (64)34 (87)0.009
Decreased VO2max%, n (%)57 (35)16 (41)0.017
Holter ECG abnormalities, n (%)55 (33)17 (44)0.179
  • ACEi: angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ANA: antinuclear antibodies; ARB: angiotensin II receptor blocker; CPK: creatine phosphokinase, cutoff value 145 U/l; CRP: C-reactive protein, cutoff value 10 mg/l; ECG: electrocardiogram; eGFR: estimated glomerular filtration rate; ESR: erythrocyte sedimentation rate, cutoff value 20 mm; FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 s, percent of predicted value, cutoff value 70%; FVC: forced vital capacity, percent of predicted value, cutoff value 80%; GLS: global longitudinal strain; mRSS: modified Rodnan skin score; NT-proBNP: N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, cutoff value 300 ng/l; VO2max: maximum O2 uptake during exercise, percent of predicted value, cutoff value 80%; IQR: interquartile range.