Table 3.

Evolution of HAQ and DAS over time in men and womena.

Men, ß (95% CI)Women, ß (95% CI)pb
All patients, n11424393
Sex and followup time interaction0.2000.011
Followup time, yrs−0.69 (−0.75 to −0.62)−0.58 (−0.62 to −0.55)
csDMARD combination therapy, n233947
Sex and followup time interaction0.7060.014
Followup time, yrs−0.89 (−1.07 to −0.71)−0.59 (−0.67 to −0.51)
csDMARD monotherapy, n4211804
Sex and followup time interaction0.4530.178
GC, n103252
Sex and followup time interaction0.2830.462
csDMARD + GC, n271928
Sex and followup time interaction0.4190.263
csDMARD combination + GC, n114452
Sex and followup time interaction0.8480.931
  • a Results stem from linear multivariable mixed model analyses adjusted for age, RF, ACPA, symptom duration at diagnosis, BMI, smoking, and country. Different models were constructed for all patients and then for treatment subgroups. Regression coefficients represent the units of change in the outcome per unit of time, in this case, per year.

  • b P values are shown only for the interactions between sex and time. In the presence of a statistically significant interaction, results are stratified by sex, and the evolution of DAS over time is shown for men and women separately. HAQ: Health Assessment Questionnaire; DAS: Disease Activity Score; csDMARD: conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs; GC: glucocorticoids; RF: rheumatoid factor; ACPA: anticitrullinated protein antibodies; BMI: body mass index.