Table 5.

Cox hazard analysis of clinical risk factors for ESRD in patients with proliferative lupus nephritis.

VariablesUnivariateMultivariate
HR95% CIpHR95% CIp
Age0.9790.942–1.0170.276
Sex, f/m3.6681.410–9.5450.0081.8670.541–6.4450.323
WBC count, × 109/l1.2521.104–1.421< 0.0011.1040.929–1.3120.261
Hemoglobin, g/l0.9660.945–0.9880.0030.9720.943–1.0010.056
Platelet, × 109/l1.0030.997–1.0090.705
C3, mg/dl0.9930.968–1.0190.607
C4, mg/dl1.0440.981–1.1120.174
Positive anti-dsDNA1.3640.553–3.3620.5
uPCR, g/g1.1351.060–1.216< 0.0011.1411.038–1.2530.006
SCr, mg/dl2.0931.705–2.569< 0.0011.8761.447–2.433< 0.001
Albumin, g/l0.9370.871–1.0080.079
Renal pathological characteristics
  Glomerular sclerosis, %1.0371.008–1.0670.0121.0401.001–1.0810.045
  Segmental crescents, %1.0010.965–1.0390.942
  Cellular crescents, %1.0441.023–1.064< 0.0011.0411.014–1.0700.003
  Fibrous crescents, %1.2431.024–1.5090.0280.8460.617–1.1590.298
  Fibrocellular crescents, %1.1231.069–1.180< 0.0011.1041.027–1.1870.007
  Fibrinoid necrosis0.5170.069–3.8670.521
  Mesangial proliferation0.453
    Mild0.2140.026–1.7370.149
    Moderate0.3460.040–3.0040.336
    Severe0.2620.027–2.5840.251
  Podocyte fusion0.780
    Localized19290.000–1.1 × 10100.948
    Partial43210.000–2.5 × 10100.942
    Extensive30240.000–1.7 × 10100.945
  Thrombosis1.8740.251–14.0220.541
  Tubulitis1.8160.782–4.2140.165
  Tubular atrophy0.001
    Mild1.1590.393–3.4170.789
    Moderate6.7461.215–37.4570.0290.0887.138–15.7390.837
    Severe6.3262.214–31.3110.0022.2120.441–11.1060.335
  Interstitial infiltration0.643
    Mild0.9930.284–3.4730.991
    Moderate1.9250.459–8.0650.370
    Severe0.0000.00–0.000.979
  Interstitial fibrosis0.7720.248–2.4020.655
  C1q0.778
    Mild0.3880.054–2.7560.344
    Moderate0.7650.162–3.6090.735
    Severe0.8130.174–3.8030.792
  • ESRD: endstage renal disease; WBC: white blood cell; C3: complement factor 3; uPCR: urine protein creatinine ratio; SCr: serum creatinine.