Table 4.

Cox hazard analysis of clinical risk factors for doubling of SCr or ESRD in patients with proliferative lupus nephritis.

VariablesUnivariateMultivariate
HR95% CIpHR95% CIp
Clinical
  Age0.9830.953–1.0130.265
  Female/male3.1761.414–7.1310.0051.5610.494–4.9350.448
  WBC count, 109/l1.1461.018–1.290.0241.0340.888–1.2050.665
  Hemoglobin, g/l0.9670.949–0.985< 0.0010.9700.947–0.9920.009
  Platelet, × 109/l0.9990.994–1.0040.705
  C3, mg/dl0.9930.972–1.0140.500
  C4, mg/dl1.0350.981–1.0930.204
  Positive anti-dsDNA0.9100.459–2.0020.959
  uPCR, g/g1.1051.306–1.1780.0021.0860.989–1.1920.084
  SCr, mg/dl1.9201.613–2.285< 0.0011.8341.465–2.296< 0.001
  Albumin, g/l0.9350.882–0.9920.0270.9670.899–1.0400.372
Renal pathological characteristics
  Glomerular sclerosis, %1.0361.012–1.0610.0031.0310.998–1.0660.065
  Segmental crescents, %1.0241.000–1.0480.054
  Cellular crescents, %1.0431.025–1.060< 0.0011.0401.015–1.0660.002
  Fibrous crescents, %1.2851.115–1.4820.0010.9750.785–1.2100.816
  Fibrocellular crescents, %1.1161.068–1.166< 0.0011.0851.013–1.1630.020
  Fibrinoid necrosis0.6840.163–2.8710.603
  Mesangial proliferation0.616
    Mild0.4000.052–3.1000.380
    Moderate0.4520.054–3.7780.464
    Severe0.6720.081–5.5470.712
  Podocyte fusion0.705
    Localized16670–4.4 × 1080.936
    Partial34550–9.2 × 1080.930
    Extensive34230–9.1 × 1080.930
  Thrombosis1.2900.175–9.4890.803
  Tubulitis1.5680.795–3.0920.194
  Tubular atrophy< 0.001
    Mild1.9450.765–4.9490.162
    Moderate7.0451.339–37.0640.0211.2000.01–15.7390.890
    Severe10.8543.482–33.830< 0.0015.3481.278–22.3730.022
  Interstitial infiltration0.314
    Mild1.2540.430–3.6600.678
    Moderate1.7790.501–6.3100.373
    Severe5.0190.899–28.0320.066
  Interstitial fibrosis0.102
    Mild1.3800.556–3.4270.487
    Moderate3.0270.395–23.2180.287
    Severe5.7341.317–24.9630.0200.2920.045–1.8870.196
  C1q0.468
    Mild0.3080.069–1.3820.124
    Moderate0.6090.198–1.8960.392
    Severe0.7030.228–2.1700.540
  • SCr: serum creatinine; ESRD: endstage renal disease; WBC: white blood cell; C3: complement factor 3; uPCR: urine protein creatinine ratio.