Table 3.

Associations between physical workload factors and disability retirement as a result of hip OA among 30- to 60-year-old men and women. Values are HR and 95% CI.

Physical Workload FactorsMenWomen
HRa95% CIHRb95% CIHRa95% CIHRb95% CI
Heavy physical work2.422.16–2.721.341.10–1.642.241.97–2.551.651.39–1.95
Kneeling or squatting2.252.00–2.521.170.99–1.392.041.71–2.431.531.27–1.84
Heavy lifting2.342.07–2.651.231.02–1.481.891.58–2.271.080.87–1.34
Sitting0.280.24–0.340.430.34–0.540.350.29–0.420.480.39–0.58
Standing or moving2.432.14–2.751.241.04–1.481.751.55–1.981.130.98–1.29
  • a Adjusted for age.

  • b Adjusted for age and mutually adjusted (i.e., each physical workload factor is adjusted for other physical workload factors in the model). OA: osteoarthritis.