Table 1.

Demographics and disease-related features at enrollment in the study population. Values are mean ± SD or n (%), unless otherwise specified.

VariablesGroup A, AM Intake > 60% of Time, n = 236Group B, AM Intake < 60% of Time, n = 88Group C, Non-AM Intake, n = 135p
Age at SLE diagnosis, yrs35.38 ± 13.0934.42 ± 14.4536.94 ± 14.360.37
Age at enrollment, yrs35.57 ± 13.0634.66 ± 14.4237.19 ± 14.340.36
Female210 (89.0)79 (89.8)115 (85.2)0.47
White/Black/Asian/others, %69.1/14/5.5/11.467/17/6.8/9.176.3/11.1/8.9/3.70.14
SLE duration at enrollment, yrs0.19 ± 0.240.24 ± 0.300.25 ± 0.290.11
Clinical manifestation at enrollment
  Lupus nephritis38 (16.1)27 (30.7)49 (36.3)< 0.001
  Neuropsychiatric34 (14.4)21 (23.9)27 (20.0)0.11
  Vasculitis30 (12.7)12 (13.6)11 (8.1)0.33
  Mucocutaneous132 (55.9)46 (52.3)76 (56.3)0.81
  Musculoskeletal71 (30.1)19 (21.6)16 (11.9)< 0.001
  Serositis33 (14.0)9 (10.2)14 (10.4)0.49
  Hematologic24 (10.2)8 (9.1)15 (11.1)0.89
  Abnormal immunology161 (68.2)54 (61.4)83 (61.5)0.19
SLEDAI-2K score at enrollment9.67 ± 8.0010.51 ± 7.2610.37 ± 9.870.63
Renal–SLEDAI-2K score at enrollment1.54 ± 4.012.50 ± 4.263.02 ± 4.540.004
SDI score at enrollment0.07 ± 0.400.08 ± 0.270.08 ± 0.390.93
Used glucocorticoids at enrollment126 (53.4)52 (59.1)76 (56.3)0.63
Used immunosuppressive drugs at enrollment33 (14.0)22 (25.0)21 (15.6)0.06
  • AM: antimalarial agent; SDI: Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index; SLE: systemic lupus erythematosus; SLEDAI-2K: SLE Disease Activity Index 2000.