Table 4.

Adjusted OR and 95% CI (n = 1702 ankles*) for exploratory associations between covariates and KL 1 or more.

CharacteristicOR1 (95% CI)Adjusted OR2 (95% CI)
Age ≥ 70 yrs0.81 (0.64–1.03)0.86 (0.68–1.09)
Age < 70 yrsReferentReferent
BMI ≥ 30 kg/m22.00 (1.58–2.52)2.13 (1.66–2.73)
BMI < 30 kg/m2ReferentReferent
Women0.49 (0.38–0.64)0.47 (0.36–0.61)
MenReferentReferent
African American0.83 (0.65–1.06)0.75 (0.58–0.98)
WhiteReferentReferent
Ankle injury1.57 (1.06–2.31)1.50 (1.02–2.22)
No injuryReferentReferent
Ankle symptoms1.82 (1.32–2.51)1.64 (1.18–2.29)
No ankle symptomsReferentReferent
  • * n = 864 individuals/1728 ankles; missing data on injury (10 individuals/20 ankles), symptoms (1 individual/2 ankles), or KL (4 ankles) results in 1702 ankles available for complete case analysis.

  • Statistically significant.

  • 1 Adjusted only for intraperson correlation using generalized estimating equations.

  • 2 Adjusted for intraperson correlation and all other listed covariates. KL: Kellgren-Lawrence arthritis grading scale; BMI: body mass index.