Table 1.

Participant characteristics. Values are n (%) unless otherwise specified.

CharacteristicsSample Population, n = 141
Female123 (87.2)
Age, yrs, mean ± SD44 ± 14
Diagnosis
  SLE30 (21.3)
  RA10 (7.1)
  SSc24 (17.0)
  DM or PM8 (5.7)
  Sjögren syndrome13 (9.2)
  APS4 (2.8)
  Hemolytic anemia3 (2.1)
  Multiple sclerosis4 (2.8)
  Thyroid disease26 (18.4)
  Type 1 diabetes mellitus6 (4.2)
  Healthy controls47 (33.3)
  • SLE: systemic lupus erythematosus; RA: rheumatoid arthritis; SSc: systemic sclerosis; DM: dermatomyositis; PM: polymyositis; APS: antiphospholipid antibody syndrome.