Table 2.

Potential biomarkers of joint damage.

TypePotential Marker
Markers of inflammationCRP; hsCRP, SAA29
Markers of collagen breakdownC2C, C1–2C, and CPII levels30
Bone turnover31,32
   Wingless signaling pathwayDickkopf-1, sclerostin
   Osteoblast activitybone alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin
   Osteoclast activityCTX-II, CTX-I, RANKL, OPG
   Proteolytic enzymesMMP-3
  • CRP: C-reactive protein; hsCRP: high-sensitivity CRP; SAA: serum amyloid A; C2C: collagen 2 degradation; CPII: collagen 2 formation; CTX: collagen cross-linked C-telopeptide; RANKL: receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand; OPG: osteoprotegerin; MMP-3: matrix metalloprotease-3.