Table 4.

Associations (OR) between CV and markers of complexity (selected comorbidities and risk factors) among working-age respondents with an MSK.

VariablesOR (95% CI)Adjusted OR (95% CI)
CrudeModel 1aModel 2a
Selected comorbidities, MSK plusb
  1 or more1.9 (1.6–2.3)1.8 (1.5–2.2)1.6 (1.3–2.0)
  2 or more3.5 (2.5–5.0)3.2 (2.3–4.5)2.5 (1.7–3.6)
  3 or more8.4 (3.2–22.0)8.4 (3.3–21.2)5.6 (2.2–14.4)
Selected biomedical risk factorsc
  1 or more1.5 (1.3–1.8)1.3 (1.1–1.5)1.2 (1.0–1.4)
  2 or more1.4 (1.2–1.6)1.2 (1.0–1.4)1.1 (0.9–1.3)
  3 or more1.2 (1.0–1.5)1.1 (0.9–1.4)1.1 (0.9–1.3)
Selected lifestyle risk factorsd
  1 or more1.6 (1.1–2.2)2.1 (1.5–2.8)1.9 (1.4–2.6)
  2 or more1.5 (1.3–1.8)1.9 (1.6–2.1)1.7 (1.4–2.0)
  3 or more1.4 (1.1–1.7)1.6 (1.3–2.0)1.5 (1.2–1.8)
  • a Multiple logistic regression: Model 1: associations are adjusted for age and sex. Model 2: associations are adjusted for age, sex, income, and occupation.

  • b Selected comorbidities: cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and mental health.

  • c Biomedical risk factors: obesity, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, high blood sugar.

  • d Lifestyle risk factors: risky level of alcohol consumption, current smoker, insufficient vegetable intake, insufficient fruit intake, and low physical activity levels. CV: communication vulnerabilities; MSK: musculoskeletal conditions.