Table 1.

Select publications evaluating insulin resistance in RA versus non-RA control subjects.

ReferenceNo. SubjectsBMIVisceral FatInsulin Resistance/sensitivityNotes
Ferraz-Amaro 2011116 RA starting anti-TNF, 34 RA control, and 70 healthy controlNon-significant trend for lower in RAND in controls, in RA unchanged after anti-TNF-αGreater IR (HOMA2-IR) in RA
Ferraz-Amaro 20132101 RA, 99 controlSimilarND, but trend for larger waist in RAGreater IR (HOMA-IR) and impaired insulin processing (split proinsulin levels) in RA
Chung 20083154 RA, 85 controlSimilarND, but larger waist in RAGreater IR (HOMA-IR) in RAAverage BMI overweight
Rosenvinge 200749 RA, 9 controlSimilarNDGreater IR (hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp) in RA.Average BMI overweight
Paolisso 199158 RA (+8 with other CTD), 10 healthy controlSimilarNDGreater IR (IVGTT and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp) in the RA/CTD groupAverage BMI overweight. IR did not improve after anti-TNF
Penesova 2013622 RA, 15 controlsSimilarNDSimilar IR (OGTT, HOMA-IR). AUC for insulin inverse association with IL-6Controlled diet 2 weeks prior to study. IR correlated with inflammation
Hoes 20117140 RA, 50 controls (selected for normal glucose tolerance)Lower in RAND, but lower waist circumference in RADecreased IS and beta cell function (FSOGTT) in RAPremenopausal females. BMI limit 18–25 kg/m2
Dessein 2002838 RA (+49 with other CTD), 30 controlHigher in RA/CTDNDGreater IR (HOMA-IR and QUICKI) in RA/CTD, but no difference after adjustment for ESR and BMIMore females in RA group. RA waist circumference associated with all measures of IS
Toussirot 2013930 RA, 51 controlSimilarGreater visceral fat in RA by DEXASimilar IR (HOMA-IR)
  • RA: rheumatoid arthritis; BMI: body mass index; DEXA: dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; IR: insulin resistance; HOMA-IR: homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance; ND: not done; IS: insulin sensitivity; FSOGTT: frequently sampled oral glucose tolerance test; OGTT: oral glucose tolerance test, IVGTT: intravenous glucose tolerance test; CTD: connective tissue disease; QUICKI: quantitative insulin sensitivity check index; TNF: tumor necrosis factor; AUC: area under the curve; IL: interleukin; ESR: erythrocyte sedimentation rate.