APPENDIX 1.

Characteristics of the Study of Lupus Vascular and Bone Long-term Endpoints (SOLVABLE) cohort compared to remaining members of the Chicago Lupus Database (CLD). Continuous variables are the mean ± SD, categorical variables are the percentage.

CharacteristicSOLVABLE, n = 173CLD, n = 459p
Race/ethnicity, %0.176
  White60.758.2
  Black28.324.1
  Asian4.65.3
  Hispanic6.411.2
  Other0.01.2
Disease duration, yrs, mean ± SD11.9 ± 8.75.7 ± 6.9< 0.001
Age, yrs, mean ± SD42.6 ± 10.435.9 ± 11.5< 0.001
Smoking history, %40.530.60.017
Lupus renal disease, %a37.034.10.494
C4, mg/dl, mean ± SD19.4 ± 9.019.8 ± 10.90.701
C3, mg/dl, mean ± SD96.9 ± 27.396.7 ± 37.20.944
Positive anti-dsDNA, %b46.850.30.461
Hydroxychloroquine use, %774.647.5< 0.001
Corticosteroid use, %42.255.00.004
Immunosuppressant use, %c34.119.1< 0.001
  • a Defined as participants meeting American College of Rheumatology guidelines for lupus nephritis (proteinuria > 0.5 g/day or > 3+ by dipstick, and/or cellular casts, and/or renal biopsy demonstrating immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis)19.

  • b Defined as antibody titer ≥ 1:10 by C. luciliae method.

  • c Includes cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, methotrexate, mycophenolate mofetil, cyclosporine, or tacrolimus. C4: complement 4; C3: complement 3.