Table 2.

Characteristics of women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) by present versus absent CAC and AC scoresa. Continuous variables are the mean ± standard deviation (SD) and categorical variables are the percentage.

CharacteristicCAC Present, n = 59CAC Absent, n = 110pAC Present, n = 70AC Absent, n = 63p
Demographics
  Age, yrs, mean ± SD48.9 ± 9.839.5 ± 9.2< 0.00146.3 ± 9.936.7 ± 8.0< 0.001
  Postmenopausal, %61.020.0< 0.00151.411.1< 0.001
  Age at menopause, yrs, mean ± SD43.9 ± 7.340.1 ± 8.80.17842.7 ± 8.437.6 ± 6.90.112
Race/ethnicity, %0.4880.641
  White64.460.957.165.1
  Black28.826.428.623.8
  Other6.812.714.311.1
Measured and clinical risk factors
  α-ClFA, fmol/25 µl, mean ± SD43.4 ± 38.041.4 ± 37.70.62540.9 ± 26.238.0 ± 18.00.935
  Hypertension, %b49.226.40.00348.620.60.001
  Dyslipidemia, %c93.257.3< 0.00180.055.60.002
  Total cholesterol, mean ± SD (mg/dl)200.8 ± 37.9179.4 ± 37.8< 0.001194.4 ± 39.0170.1 ± 32.4< 0.001
  LDL cholesterol, mg/dl, mean ± SD121.5 ± 31.699.1 ± 29.8< 0.001113.6 ± 33.295.3 ± 26.4< 0.001
  HDL cholesterol, mg/dl, mean ± SD52.0 ± 14.857.6 ± 14.90.02254.9 ± 16.555.3 ± 14.90.882
  Triglyceride, mg/dl, mean ± SD136.6 ± 85.0113.9 ± 57.70.110129.8 ± 77.498.4 ± 48.90.003
  Diabetes mellitus, %d6.80.90.0514.30.00.246
  Waist circumference, cm, mean ± SD97.1 ± 17.980.5 ± 11.1< 0.00191.8 ± 16.978.7 ± 10.0< 0.001
  Tobacco use (current), %8.512.70.40415.77.90.169
  Tobacco use, (history of) %42.439.10.67847.131.70.070
  C-reactive protein, µg/ml, mean ± SD6.6 ± 13.73.2 ± 8.9< 0.0015.8 ± 12.53.7 ± 11.5< 0.001
  Homocysteine, µmoles/l, mean ± SD12.0 ± 3.811.4 ± 6.60.01912.1 ± 6.311.1 ± 6.40.114
  Fibrinogen, mg/dl, mean ± SD359.5 ±100.6312.1 ± 100.90.004353.3 ± 104.5301.4 ± 109.70.002
  Serum albumin, g/dl, mean ± SD4.0 ± 0.34.0 ± 0.50.8554.0 ± 0.44.0 ± 0.50.705
  Anticardiolipin IgM-positive, %17.219.10.76915.725.40.166
  Anticardiolipin IgG-positive, %8.611.90.51211.411.10.954
SLE-related factors
  C4, mg/dl, mean ± SD22.0 ± 8.818.1 ± 8.80.16320.8 ± 8.517.0 ± 9.70.004
  C3, mg/dl, mean ± SD110.0 ± 27.589.8 ± 24.7< 0.001105.2 ± 28.684.7 ± 23.9< 0.001
  Positive anti-dsDNA, %e40.751.80.16750.055.60.522
  SLEDAI-2K score, mean ± SD3.7 ± 3.44.2 ± 3.80.3384.1 ± 4.04.5 ± 3.60.298
  ACR/SLICC-DI score, mean ± SD2.0 ± 1.61.4 ± 1.90.0022.2 ± 1.91.2 ± 1.9< 0.001
Current medication use
  Statin, %10.24.50.19511.41.60.035
  Hydroxychloroquine, %71.272.70.83174.377.80.638
  Corticosteroid, %42.440.90.85442.941.30.853
  • a Present defined as CAC > 0 and AC > 0; absent defined as CAC = 0 and AC = 0.

  • b Defined as systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mm Hg, or antihypertensive medication use for hypertension.

  • c Defined as total cholesterol > 200, LDL > 100, HDL < 40, triglyceride > 150, or use of lipid-lowering medication.

  • d Defined as fasting glucose > 126 or diabetes medication use.

  • e Defined as antibody titer ≥ 1:10 by C. luciliae method. AC: aorta calcium; CAC: coronary artery calcium; α-ClFA: alpha-chlorofatty acid; LDL: low-density lipoprotein; HDL: high-density lipoprotein; CVD: cardiovascular disease; SLEDAI-2K: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index 2000; ACR/SLICC-DI: American College of Rheumatology/Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics Damage Index.