Table 1.

Patient characteristics at diagnosis.

CharacteristicsWith DiplopiaWithout Diplopiap
No. patients928
Sex, n (%)0.23
  Male5 (56)8 (29)
  Female4 (44)20 (71)
Age, yrs, mean (range)76 (65–79)74.5 (53–92)1
Ischemic symptoms, n (%)
  Amaurosis fugax0/9 (0)1/28 (3.5)1
  Visual loss4/9 (44)7/28 (25)0.4
  Headache6/9 (67)21/28 (75)0.68
  Jaw claudication7/9 (78)18/28 (64)0.69
  Scalp tenderness5/9 (56)15/28 (54)1
  Tender temporal arteries4/9 (44)13/28 (46)1
  Claudication of extremities 1/9 (11)1/9 (11)3/28 (11)1
  1/9 (11)
Systemic symptoms, n (%)
  *PMR3/9 (33)10/28 (36)1
  Weight loss4/7° (57)21/27* (78)0.35
  Night sweats3/9 (33)12/27* (44)0.7
Laboratory results, mean (range)
  Platelets, G/l442 (271–721)383.5 (139–939)0.64
  ESR, mm/h70 (30–110)76* (14–130)0.65
  CRP, mg/l70.1* (32.8–158.3)62 (10.1–158.2)0.51
  AP, U/l70* (59–84)83* (52–188)0.13
Ultrasound findings
  Cranial involvement9/9 (100%)20/28 (71%)0.16
  Extracranial involvement5/9 (56%)5/28 (18%)0.04
Biopsy results, n (%)0.3
  Positive9/9 (100)19/23+ (83)
  Negative0/9 (0)4/23+ (17)
  • * Data not available for 1 patient.

  • ° Data not available for 2 patients.

  • + 1 patient refused biopsy, 4 biopsies were not diagnostic. ESR: erythrocyte sedimentation rate; CRP: C-reactive protein; AP: alkaline phosphatase; PMR: polymyalgia rheumatica. Cranial arteries: A. carotis communis, A. carotis interna, A. carotis externa, A. vertebralis, A. temporalis; extracranial arteries: A. subclavia, A. axillaris, A. femoralis communis, A. profunda femoris, A. femoralis superficialis, A. poplitea.