Table 1.

Characteristics of patients at start of study (onset of proteinuria). * Results for nominal data are n (%), and for continuous data in mean ± SD.

VariablesNResultsN (%) with Abnormal Results
Sex (F)212178 (84)
Age at diagnosis of SLE, yrs21228.5 ± 12.7
Age, yrs21234.1 ± 12.4
Disease duration, yrs2125.6 ± 6.4
Ethnicity212
  White123 (58)
  Black36 (17)
  Asian31 (15)
  Others22 (10)
Length of followup period, yrs (from study start to recovery or last clinic visit)2122.3 ± 2.7 median 1.2
  Patients who had not recovered at last clinic visit842.7 ± 3.3 median 1.4
  Patients who recovered1282.0 ± 2.1 median 1.2
SLEDAI at baseline21217.0 ± 6.7
SLEDAI at end of study2128.0 ± 7.1
BMI11925.5 ± 5.8
Systolic, mmHg207132.1 ± 22.554 (26.1)
Diastolic, mmHg20782.4 ± 14.342 (20.3)
Hypertensive patients*211117 (55.5)
Serum creatinine (> 140 μmol/l) at baseline212101.9 ± 58.0 median 8334 (16.0)
Serum creatinine (> 140 μmol/l) at last visit206124.3 ± 108.0 median 8844 (21.4)
GFR > 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 at baseline21279.9 ± 35.5145 (68.4)
GFR > 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 at last visit20574.0 ± 36.1134 (65.4)
Cholesterol, > 5.2 mmol/l2046.45 ± 2.28135 (66.2)
ESR, mm/h > 13 Male > 20 Female16643.4 ± 31.0121 (72.9)
HsCRP, > 3.0 mg/l813.9 ± 6.627 (33.3)
Albumin, < 35 g/l20932.4 ± 7.3121 (57.9)
DNA, Farr assay, > 7 U/ml19844.7 ± 39.3132 (66.7)
C3, 0.9–1.8** g/l2100.75 ± 0.39131 (62.4)
C4, 0.1–0.4** g/l2010.15 ± 0.1192 (45.8)
  • * Hypertensive patients either had documented high blood pressure or were taking antihypertensive drugs.

  • ** Low C3 and C4 established on the bases of range of normal set by testing laboratory at the time of clinic visit. SLE: systemic lupus erythematosus; SLEDAI: SLE Disease Activity Index; BMI: body mass index; GFR: glomerular filtration rate; ESR: erythrocyte sedimentation rate; HsCRP: high-sensitivity C-reactive protein.