Table 3.

Risk factors for inpatient mortality and LOS for SLE hospitalizations.

Risk FactorMortality, OR (95% CI)LOS, RR (95% CI)
Nephritis
  No
  Yes2.71 (1.74–4.23)***1.30 (1.21–1.40)***
Age, yrs
  2–12
  12–171.42 (0.58–3.48)0.92 (0.81–1.04)
  18–202.85 (1.21–6.71)*1.06 (0.93–1.20)
Sex
  Female
  Male1.51 (0.99–2.29)1.03 (0.94–1.14)
Race
  White
  Black2.01 (1.12–3.62)*1.09 (1.00–1.20)
  Hispanic1.39 (0.73–2.64)1.07 (0.97–1.18)
  Other1.88 (0.94–3.75)1.14 (1.001–1.30)*
Payer
  Medicaid
  Private0.89 (0.59–1.34)0.88 (0.82–0.94)***
  Other1.01 (0.65–1.58)0.90 (0.82–0.999)*
Location
  Rural
  Urban0.98 (0.28–3.42)1.33 (1.16–1.53)***
Region
  Northeast
  Midwest0.81 (0.34–1.95)1.08 (0.92–1.28)
  South2.03 (1.23–3.36)**1.06 (0.92–1.21)
  West1.77 (0.98–3.20)1.11 (0.93–1.32)
Teaching
  No
  Yes1.06 (0.60–1.87)1.10 (1.01–1.20)*
Type
  General
  Children’s0.95 (0.59–1.52)1.05 (0.95–1.17)
  • Shown are OR and relative risks (RR) for risk factors included in the multivariable regressions for the main outcomes. The covariates included in the multivariable regressions were calendar year, presence of SLE nephritis, age group, sex, race/ethnicity, primary payer, hospital location, hospital region, hospital teaching status, and hospital type. Reference groups are denoted by “—”. Significance for p values is

  • * p < 0.05,

  • ** p < 0.01,

  • *** p < 0.001. SLE: systemic lupus erythematosus; LOS: length of stay.