Table 1.

Characteristics of 69 articles included in the metaanalysis.

StudyCountry (study period)STROBE Checklist (total = 32)Sample Size (N)SSc Subset, %Sex, %Mean Age, yrs (SD)Disease Duration, yrs (SD)
dcSSclcSScOtherMaleFemale
Walker 200710EUSTAR (2004–2006)2613491000018.981.152.3 (13.7)7.4 (6.9)
Steen4USA (1972–1995)23953100002080NA9.8
Pérez-Bocanegra11Spain (1976–2007)2531920.158.321.6NANANANA
De Marco12USA (1991–1996)301341000022.477.6NA0.8 (0.3)
Hashimoto13Japan (1973–2008)2740532.667.4NA7.292.847*14 (0.6)††
La Montagna14Italy (1965–1994)223232638.435.67.192.946.7 (0.8)NA
Walker 200315Australia (1983–2000)22538NANANANANANANA
Coral-Alvarado16Colombia2834923.576.5NA89254.5 (12.9)6.2 (5.9)
Khimdas17Canada2793843.450NA148655.4 (0.3) 13.6(0.3)††
Nagy18Hungary (1982–1993)291712179NA12.987.141*2**
Allanore19EUSTAR (2004–2008)26707332.867.2NA13.986.156 (14)NA
Hunzelmann20Germany (2003–2007)24148332.745.521.816.483.455.7 (13.7)NA
Avouac21France & Italy3011653070NA11.788.360 (14)13 (8)
Avouac22France & Italy2311322971NA12.687.460 (14)12 (8)
Czirják23Hungary (1983–2005)3036627.672.4NA13.986.156.8 (12.2)13.5 (10.8)
Nishimagi24Japan (1992–2004)2530234.865.2NA12.687.453*3**
Foocharoen25Thailand (2005–2006)2711770.129.9NA40.259.849.8 (10.3)NA
Schmajuk26USA (1996–2006)251653169NA19.480.6NANA
Low27Canada (1990–2007)2633550.649.4NA19.980.1NANA
Picha28Greece2315036568128843 (2.3)15 (1.7)
Shand29UK (1983–2001)3122510000188244 (13)10 (6)
Nguyen30France (2003–2009)2838140.459.6NA16.383.755.9 (13.3)9.5 (7.8)
Hügle31EUSTAR (2004–2009)28843132.558.29.113.686.455*6.3**
Minier32Hungary23131NANANA19955.9 (11.6)8.1 (7.2)
Joven33Spain (1980–2006)24204315910118949 (17)6 (10)
Chang34USA (1990–2001)286194159NA17.182.950.5 (13.1)NA
Follansbee35USA (1959–1988)241095NANANANANANANA
de Groote36France (2002–2003)2657026.373.7NA158554 (14)9 (8)
Hanitsch37Germany (2003–2007)27120039.260.8NANANANA8
Poormoghim38Iran (2006–2007)255841.458.6NA8.691.440.8 (13.7)7.97
Morelli39Italy (1993–1994)247259.740.3NA17.182.94810
Alivernini40Italy2613026.973.1NA10.889.256.5 (12.2)8.1 (8.1)
Aguglia41Italy (1993–1998)241244654NA14.585.552 (12.5)11.2 (8)
Launay42France2419756.443.6NA17.882.248 (14)NA
Pope43Canada (2002–2003)2753941581168456 (13)9 (7)
Cox44Australia (1983–2002)2460820.462.716.9NANANANA
Phung45Australia (2005–2007)2918424.575.5NA12.987.160*10.5**
Yamane46Japan (1990–1999)191254456NA8.891.2NANA
Hachulla47France (2002–2003)2759927.672.5NA16.283.854.7 (13)8.5 (7.9)
Mukerjee48UK (1998–2002)25722NANANA16.683.4NANA
Vonk49The Netherlands (2005–2007)261148NANANA24.675.459.1*NA
Avouac50France221204357NA158556.5*6
Beretta51Italy (1982–2008)2355826.973.1NA10.689.4NANA
Plastiras52Greece (1993–2005)2611447.452.6NA15.884.2NANA
Cordeiro53Brazil (2001–2003)245756.143.9NA148642.6 (13.1)9.6 (6.9)
Murata54Japan (1990–1995)258035.664.4NA9.690.452.7 (12.3)11.6 (8.7)
Tager55South Africa (1990–1995)24636528.66.417.982.136.13.6
Kumar56India (2004–2007)251003961NA138729.4 (11.4)7.15 (5.5)
Hachulla57France (2002–2003)2954627.572.5NA15.984.154.9 (13)8.8 (8.1)
Steen58USA (1972–1989)2789047.552.5NA20.279.8NANA
Ostojić59Serbia & Montenegro (2001–2003)1910552.447.6NANANANANA
Duchini60USA (1985–1996)1914479.220.8NA12.587.554.4 (16)11.08 (8.3)
Parodi61Italy215532.767.3NA9.190.959 (11)NA
Szamosi62Hungary (1994–2004)1724620.379.7NA16.383.754.2 (9.6)9.1 (6.3)
Marie63France (2006–2007)22514951NA19.680.454*4**
Mimura64Japan (1990–2001)263024456NA10.689.452NA
Balbir-Gurman65Israel (2004–2009)1916525.474.6NANANA60.5 (15.2)10.4 (7.5)
Avouac66EUSTAR (2004–2008)2572864258NA148656 (14)10 (9)
Jinnin67Japan (1990–2001)2217336.463.6NA8.791.3NANA
La Montagna68Italy (2002–2002)237628.930.340.89.290.852*8**
Tiev69France (2002–2003)255992872NA168455 (13)7 (7)
Wigley70USA (1985–1990)269841.858.2NA20.479.650.9 (13.6)NA
Nihtyanova71UK22116829.570.5NANANANANA
Sunderkötter72Germany (2003–2007)26169031482117.282.8NANA
Harrison73UK (1994–2000)2710127.772.3NA138753*13**
Wangkaew74Thailand2250NANANA267446.6 (7.9)5.1 (4.6)
Swaminathan75Australia (1998–2006)2319324.460.61517.182.954.6NA
Wigley76USA & Canada26586NANANANANANANA
Ingraham77USA (1972–1995)NA2080NANANANANANANA
  • * Median age;

  • disease duration from first onset of non-Raynaud’s phenomenon symptom to study period or inclusion;

  • ** median disease duration;

  • †† disease duration from onset of Raynaud’s phenomenon to study period or inclusion. dcSSc: diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis; lcSSc: limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis; NA: not applicable; EUSTAR: European League Against Rheumatism Scleroderma Trials and Research group.