Table 4.

Causes of death of the 43 deceased patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc).

Causes of DeathSSc Patients
Related to SSc, n (%)24 (56)
  Cardiopulmonary disease13
    Pulmonary arterial hypertension5
      Pulmonary fibrosis5
  Gastrointestinal disease*6
  Renal failure5
    Scleroderma renal crisis3
Unrelated to SSc, n (%)16 (37)
  Cardiovascular diseases2
  Obstructive lung disease2
  Other causes**2
Cause of death unknown, n (%)3 (7)
  • * Cachexia, malabsorption, aspiration, bleeding;

  • ** trauma. ILD: interstitial lung disease; PH: pulmonary hypertension.