Table 2.

The risk for major malformations in infants or fetuses after exposure to NSAID, compared to nonexposed.

ExposureMajor Congenital Malformations OR (95% CI)
UnadjustedAdjusted*
Nonselective COX inhibitors, n = 51531.13 (1.004–1.26)1.07 (0.96–1.21)
  Ibuprofen, n = 27541.09 (0.93–1.27)1.06 (0.90–1.24)
  Diclofenac, n = 13231.16 (0.93–1.44)1.08 (0.87–1.34)
  Indomethacin, n = 1281.66 (0.92–3.02)1.76 (0.96–3.19)
  Naproxen, n = 9711.13 (0.88–1.46)1.09 (0.84–1.41)
  Etodolac, n = 2651.31 (0.83–2.07)0.91 (0.53–1.56)
COX-2 selective inhibitors, n = 1141.38 (0.69–2.73)1.40 (0.70–2.78)
  • * Adjusted for maternal age, parity, population group, gestational diabetes mellitus, maternal inflammatory disease, and year of birth or pregnancy termination. NSAID: nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug; COX: cyclooxygenase.