Table 1.

Characteristics of the pregnancies in the study by serologic findings throughout pregnancy.

CharacteristicsNormal Complement (%)Low Complement (%)Negative Anti-dsDNA (%)Positive Anti-dsDNA (%)
No. pregnancies127 (48)136 (52)150 (57)114 (43)
Ethnicity
  White78 (61)79 (58)99 (66)59 (52)
  African American47 (37)50 (37)47 (31)50 (44)
Maternal age, yrs, mean (SD)29.5 (5.5)29.9 (5.3)30.0 (5.5)29.3 (5.2)
High SLE clinical activity in pregnancy (PEA ≥ 2)26 (20)32 (24)26 (17)32 (28)*
History of renal disease by ACR criteria41 (32)65 (48)*53 (35)54 (47)
Proteinuria (> 500 mg/24 h) during pregnancy26 (21)42 (31)25 (17)43 (38)**
Maximum proteinuria during pregnancy3.8 g ± 4.4 g3.5 g ± 5.0 g2.3 g ± 2.6 g4.2 g ± 5.5 g
SLE rash in pregnancy23 (18)45 (33)*37 (25)32 (28)
SLE arthritis in pregnancy22 (17)31 (23)22 (15)31 (27)*
Any prednisone use in pregnancy74 (58)107 (79)*87 (58)95 (83)**
Prednisone dose > 20 mg in pregnancy29 (23)59 (43)*36 (24)52 (46)*
HCQ use
  No HCQ in pregnancy84 (66)90 (66)106 (71)69 (61)
  HCQ all pregnancy28 (22)27 (20)31 (21)24 (21)
  Stopped HCQ for pregnancy12 (10)16 (12)11 (7)17 (15)*
Azathioprine use in pregnancy10 (8)20 (15)12 (8)19 (17)
Antiphospholipid syndrome10 (8)16 (12)10 (7)16 (14)
Low complement48 (32)88 (77)**
Positive anti-dsDNA26 (20)88 (65)**
  • * p < 0.05,

  • ** p < 0.0001. SLE: systemic lupus erythematosus; PEA: physician’s estimate of activity; ACR: American College of Rheumatology; HCQ: hydroxychloroquine.