Table 1.

Clinical conditions associated with cryoglobulinemia. For each patient an associated disease was searched for; in particular all patients had a whole-body scan, a bone marrow biopsy, and extensive microbiological screening (including for cryptic infections such as endocarditis or dental infection). No patient was infected by HIV.

Associated DiseaseN = 33 (%)
Autoimmune disease14 (42.4)
  Primary Sjögren’s syndrome7
  Systemic lupus4
  Rheumatoid arthritis2
  Celiac disease1
Infectious disease2 (6.1)
  Chronic hepatitis B1
  Parvovirus B191
Hematologic malignancy4 (12.1)
  Angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma1
  Mucosa-associated lymphoma tissue lymphoma1
  Non-Hodgkin B cell lymphoma2
No identified disease: “essential” mixed cryoglobulinemia13 (39.4)