Table 3.

Smoking and reproductive-related risk factors for the need to start DMARD therapy by 6 months and the diagnosis of RA at 12 months.

Risk FactorsDMARD OutcomeRA Outcome
n/NTrial Treatment-adjusted OR (95% CI)pOR Adjusted for Trial Treatment, Age, and Sex (95% CI)pn/NTrial Treatment-adjusted OR (95% CI)pOR Adjusted for Trial Treatment, Age, and Sex (95% CI)p
Smoking
  Never65/161ReferenceReference61/148ReferenceReference
  Current36/1611.61 (0.66–3.91)0.2941.62 (0.66–3.97)0.29328/1483.15 (1.16–8.56)0.0253.44 (1.24–9.56)0.018
  Past60/1612.12 (0.98–4.61)0.0571.90 (0.85–4.26)0.11759/1481.59 (0.77–3.31)0.2091.50 (0.70–3.23)0.301
Still menstruating35/1030.38 (0.16–0.94)0.0360.27 (0.06–1.30)0.10330/920.57 (0.23–1.44)0.2340.49 (0.10–2.41)0.382
OCP use67/1051.17 (0.49–2.79)0.7271.69 (0.61–4.64)0.31163/951.67 (0.68–4.10)0.2602.71 (0.89–8.24)0.078
Been pregnant86/1070.91 (0.30–2.78)0.8670.78 (0.25–2.47)0.67077/962.00 (0.66–6.12)0.2231.91 (0.62–5.92)0.262
Had any children85/1050.51 (0.15–1.75)0.2860.46 (0.13–1.63)0.22876/961.63 (0.56–4.80)0.3721.54 (0.51–4.63)0.442
Stillbirths5/1020.30 (0.04–2.04)0.2190.27 (0.04–1.81)0.1764/910.19 (0.02–2.08)0.1750.17 (0.02–1.89)0.150
Miscarriages21/1000.55 (0.20–1.49)0.2410.56 (0.20–1.53)0.25618/901.22 (0.41–3.62)0.7181.25 (0.42–3.73)0.685
Terminations11/1021.19 (0.31–4.52)0.8031.65 (0.39–6.93)0.4959/917.38 (0.85–63.8)0.0699.53 (1.05–86.83)0.045
Hysterectomy19/1021.51 (0.50–4.53)0.4651.26 (0.40–3.99)0.69618/911.02 (0.35–2.99)0.9670.91 (0.30–2.82)0.873
Ovaries removed14/1031.97 (0.55–7.09)0.3001.70 (0.45–6.42)0.43513/921.15 (0.34–3.92)0.8261.08 (0.30–3.88)0.912
Took HRT16/1011.75 (0.70–4.38)0.2311.48 (0.56–3.93)0.43232/901.81 (0.71–4.62)0.2121.68 (0.63–4.52)0.302
  • n/N: number of patients fulfilling criteria for each specific item/number of patients with available data. DMARD: disease-modifying antirheumatic drug; RA: rheumatoid arthritis; OCP: oral contraceptive pill; HRT: hormone replacement therapy.