Table 3.

Prevalence of medical comorbidities in patients with Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) compared with controls (n = 11,844). Data are odds ratios (95% CI). OR were calculated by regression analyses conditioned on patient’s age, sex, urbanization level, and monthly income.

VariablePatients with SS, n = 1974Patients without SS, n = 9870
Cardiovascular
  Hypertension1.04 (0.92–1.18)1.00
  Ischemic heart disease1.04 (0.60–1.79)1.00
  Hyperlipidemia1.42** (1.23–1.64)1.00
  Congestive heart failure0.99 (0.73–1.36)1.00
  Cardiac arrhythmias1.32* (1.03–1.71)1.00
  Peripheral vascular disorder1.45 (0.99–2.14)1.00
  Stroke1.22 (0.99–1.51)1.00
Neurological
  Paralysis1.25 (0.73–2.14)1.00
  Other neurological disorders1.55* (1.09–2.21)1.00
  Headache1.47** (1.30–1.67)1.00
  Migraine1.86** (1.30–1.67)1.00
  Epilepsy0.90 (0.47–1.72)1.00
  Dementia1.13 (0.76–1.70)1.00
  Multiple sclerosisNANA
  Polyneuropathy1.68 (0.95–2.96)1.00
  Myasthenia gravisNANA
Rheumatology
  Fibromyalgia1.71** (1.48–1.97)1.00
Pulmonary
  Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease1.09 (0.53–2.27)1.00
  Asthma1.54** (1.22–1.93)1.00
  Pulmonary circulation disorders1.42** (1.21–1.68)1.00
Endocrine
  Diabetes without complications1.07 (0.91–1.27)1.00
  Diabetes with complications1.14 (0.89–1.47)1.00
  Hypothyroidism2.37** (1.92–2.93)1.00
Renal
  Renal failure1.34 (0.92–1.94)1.00
  Fluid and electrolyte disorders0.81 (0.46–1.43)1.00
Gastrointestinal
  Liver disease1.89** (1.60–2.22)1.00
  Peptic ulcer1.88** (1.62–2.19)1.00
  Biliary cirrhosisNANA
Genitourinary
  Chronic interstitial cystitis/chronic cystitisNANA
Viral/infectious
  Hepatitis B2.34** (1.82–3.02)1.00
  Tuberculosis1.45 (0.81–2.58)1.00
  Urinary tract infection1.59 (0.93–2.70)1.00
Hematology
  Deficiency anemia1.33* (1.01–1.77)1.00
Mental illness
  Depression2.57** (2.03–3.25)1.00
  Psychoses2.15** (1.65–2.80)1.00
Oncology
  Metastatic cancer excluding lymphoma1.67 (0.54–5.81)1.00
  Lymphoma2.09 (0.73–5.93)1.00
  Solid tumor without metastasis1.26 (0.97–1.64)1.00
  • * p < 0.05;

  • ** p < 0.001. NA: case numbers in these cells were too small to perform regression analyses.