Table 1.

Characteristics of women by HCQ status, unadjusted (mean ± SD unless otherwise noted).

Women with SLEWomen with RA
+ HCQ (n = 71)− HCQ (n = 78)p+ HCQ (n = 31)− HCQ (n = 146)p
Demographics
  Age, yrs49.8 ± 9.949.8 ± 9.70.9856.5 ± 9.058.9 ± 87.70.23
  White, n (%)61 (86)69 (88)0.6430 (97)138 (95)1.00
  Hypertension, n (%)38 (54)40 (51)0.7812 (39)57 (39)0.97
  Current smoker, n (%)8 (11)8 (10)0.841 (3)13 (9)0.47
  Body mass index, kg/m226.9 ± 5.328.3 ± 7.00.2028.9 ± 6.327.5 ± 5.70.23
  Waist circumference, cm84.1 ± 13.387.0 ± 16.30.2391.4 ± 13.890.7 ± 16.80.82
  Hip circumference, cm99.4 ± 12.8103.6 ± 16.40.08107.2 ± 11.6105.2 ± 14.60.48
  Menopausal status, n (%)0.870.32
    Pre/perimenopausal27 (38)32 (41)5 (16)30 (20)
    Postmenopausal37 (52)40 (51)22 (71)82 (56)
    Postmenopausal on estrogen7 (10)6 (8)4 (13)34 (23)
  College education, n (%)43 (61)53 (68)0.3513 (42)86 (59)0.08
Disease measures
  Disease duration, yrs16.5 ± 6.316.5 ± 7.90.9912.6 ± 9.316.3 ± 10.80.08
  HAQ scoreNANA0.60 ± 0.520.78 ± 0.620.13
  Rheumatoid factor positivity, n (%)NANA22 (71)106 (75)0.63
  SLEDAI, median (IQR)2 (0, 4)2 (0, 2)0.07NANA
Laboratory measures
  Fasting glucose, mg/dl87.1 ± 10.391.5 ± 10.10.00985.1 ± 9.088.4 ± 10.00.09
  Fasting insulin, μU/ml, median (IQR)11.7 (9.0, 15.4)13.4 (9.1, 18.7)0.1611.0 (9.2, 13.7)11.4 (8.0, 13.9)0.32
  HOMA-B, median (IQR)194 (122, 265)179 (126, 241)0.64183 (142, 281)158 (109, 219)0.03
  HOMA-IR, median (IQR)2.51 (1.73, 3.55)2.87 (1.97, 4.28)0.0462.22 (1.82, 3.09)2.48 (1.71, 3.05)0.57
  ESR, mm/h, median (IQR)10 (4, 20)10 (5, 20)0.6914 (4, 28)10 (5, 23)0.79
  CRP, mg/l, median (IQR)2.33 (0.88, 4.67)2.59 (0.95, 5.94)0.656.04 (3.00, 9.95)4.94 (1.67, 12.15)0.43
  Creatinine, mg/dl0.87 ± 0.210.87 ± 0.350.980.81 ± 0.240.88 ± 0.250.11
  Albumin, mg/dl4.57 ± 0.494.55 ± 0.510.833.99 ± 0.443.95 ± 0.380.57
  HDL, mg/dl55.8 ± 18.052.9 ± 15.10.2963.7 ± 15.660.5 ± 14.40.27
  LDL, mg/dl102 ± 32118 ± 340.004112 ± 30123 ± 350.13
  Triglycerides, mg/dl, median (IQR)110 (75, 153)113 (80, 152)0.57116 (94, 142)121 (84, 156)0.80
  Total cholesterol, mg/dl, median (IQR)183 ± 40196 ± 420.06201 ± 33210 ± 370.21
  Atherogenic ratio (T. chol/HDL)3.55 ± 1.193.92 ± 1.140.063.27 ± 0.683.62 ± 0.880.04
Current medications
  NSAID, n (%)31 (44)26 (33)0.2024 (77)96 (66)0.21
  Prednisone, n (%)0.00010.15
    0 mg/day31 (44)61 (78)16 (53)87 (60)
    > 0 – ≤ 2.5 mg/day5 (7)1 (1)6 (20)10 (7)
    > 2.5 – ≤ 5 mg/day21 (30)11 (14)5 (17)36 (25)
    > 5 mg/day14 (20)5 (6)3 (10)12 (8)
  Nonbiologic DMARD excluding HCQ, n (%)6 (8)11 (14)0.288 (26)76 (52)0.008
  TNF inhibitors, n (%)NANA7 (23)48 (33)0.22
  Immunosuppressants, n (%)14 (20)12 (15)0.49NANA
  • HCQ: hydroxychloroquine; SLE: systemic lupus erythematosus; RA: rheumatoid arthritis; HAQ: Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index; SLEDAI: SLE Disease Activity Index; IQR: interquartile range; HOMA-B: homeostasis model assessment-B cell; HOMA-IR: HOMA-insulin; ESR: erythrocyte sedimentation rate; CRP: C-reactive protein; HDL: high-density lipoprotein; LDL: low-density lipoprotein; NSAID: nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug; DMARD: disease-modifying antirheumatic drug; TNF: tumor necrosis factor; NA: not applicable.