Table 1.

Risk factors for accelerated atherosclerosis in patients with RA.

Risk Factors
Age
Smoking
Inactive lifestyle/immobilization
Dyslipidemia, oxLDL, LDL↑, HDL↓
Hyperhomocysteinemia
Prothrombotic factors: platelets↑, fibrinogen, thromboxane
Acute-phase proteins (CRP, serum amyloid A, fibrinogen)
Autoantibodies (anti-CCP, RF, anti-oxLDL, anti-HSP)
Proinflammatory cytokines
Chemokines and angiogenic growth factors
Immune complex mediated endothelial damage
Matrix metalloproteinases
Endothelial cell dysfunction induced by inflammation
Endothelial cell leukocyte adhesion molecules
Impaired apoptosis
Medications: methotrexate, corticosteroids
  • CCP: cyclic citrullinated peptide; CRP: C-reactive protein; HDL: high density lipoprotein; HSP: heat shock protein; LDL: low density lipoprotein; oxLDL: oxidized low density lipoprotein; RF: rheumatoid factor.