Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of study participants.

VariablesTelangiectasia Score 0–3, n = 54Telangiectasia Score 4–7, n = 50Telangiectasia Score 8+, n = 43p
Age, yrs, mean (SD)47.8 (11.1)57.6 (13.9)58.5 (12.1)< 0.0001
Women, no. (%)47 (87.0)41 (82.0)39 (90.7)0.52
Race, no. (%)0.007
  White33 (61.1)37 (74.0)39 (90.7)
  African American16 (29.6)9 (18.0)3 (7.0)
  Asian5 (9.3)2 (4.0)0 (0)
  Other0 (0)2 (4.0)1 (2.3)
Scleroderma classification, no. (%)0.19
  Limited28 (51.9)29 (58.0)30 (69.8)
  Diffuse26 (48.1)21 (42.0)13 (30.2)
Disease duration, yrs, mean (SD)6.2 (5.5)8.4 (5.2)14.6 (10.9)< 0.0001
Smoking, no. (%)0.03
  Never36 (66.7)25 (50.0)18 (41.8)
  Former10 (18.5)21 (42.0)19 (44.2)
  Current8 (14.8)4 (8.0)6 (14.0)
Vascular disease, no. (%)
  Peripheral vascular disease1 (1.9)3 (6.0)0 (0)0.21
  Coronary artery disease2 (3.7)7 (14.0)4 (9.3)0.18
  Atherosclerotic CVD0 (0)0 (0)1 (2.3)0.29
  Hypertension8 (14.8)14 (28.0)11 (25.6)0.22
Renal disease, no. (%)3 (5.6)5 (10.0)7 (16.3)0.23
FVC (% predicted), mean (SD), n = 14373.8 (20.5)74.2 (17.9)73.5 (21.2)0.98
Autoantibody status, no. (%)
  Centromere, n = 1466 (11.1)13 (26.0)13 (31.0)0.04
  Scl-70, n = 14617 (31.5)8 (16.0)6 (14.3)0.08
  Ribonucleoprotein, n = 1428 (15.1)6 (12.5)1 (2.4)0.11
Medication use, no. (%)
  Calcium channel blocker28 (51.9)26 (52.0)24 (55.8)0.94
  Phosphodiesterase inhibitor1 (1.9)3 (6.0)12 (27.9)< 0.001
  Endothelin antagonist4 (7.4)2 (4.0)3 (7.0)0.76
  Prostacyclin1 (1.9)1 (2.0)3 (7.0)0.44
  Antiplatelet10 (18.5)15 (30.0)14 (32.6)0.24
  Anticoagulation1 (1.9)6 (12.0)5 (11.6)0.07
  ACE inhibitor or ARB20 (37.0)15 (30.0)29 (44.2)0.37
  Statin11 (20.4)14 (28.0)10 (23.3)0.65
  • CVD: cerebrovascular disease; FVC: forced vital capacity; Scl: scleroderma; ACE: angiotensin-converting enzyme, ARB: angiotensin receptor blocker.