Table 1.

Clinical characteristics, metabolic syndrome variables, and risk factors for cardiovascular disease. All patients and controls were female. Data are median (range).

SLE, N = 50Total Controls, N = 26pFertile Age GrouppMenopausal Age Groupp
SLE, N = 40Controls, N = 16SLE, N = 10Controls, N = 10
Metabolic syndrome
  Fasting glucose, mg/dl83.5 (66–123)88.5 (75–104)0.1381 (66–123)86 (75–102)0.2789 (79–114)96.5 (78–104)0.38
  Glucose 120′, mg/dl83 (40–246)87 (36–114)0.8583 (40–160)89.5 (75–111)0.093101 (73–246)80 (36–114)0.11
  Fasting insulin, mU/ml8.2 (3.2–32.0)6.1 (2.7–12.0)0.0047.9 (3.2–32.0)5.1 (3.7–12.0)0.00510.5 (4.1–12.5)7.6 (2.8–11.0)0.082
  HOMA-IR1.6 (0.6–8.2)1.3 (0.6–2.9)0.031.5 (0.6–8.2)1.0 (0.7–2.9)0.0082.1 (0.9–3.8)1.8 (0.6–2.7)0.21
  Triglycerides, mg/dl94 (42–209)87 (39–155)0.3189 (42–200)73 (39–130)0.074132 (71–209)118 (71–155)0.62
  HDL cholesterol, mg/dl65 (25–125)60 (30–85)0.1165 (25–125)65.5 (30–85)0.7379 (48–112)54.5 (41–64)0.01
  BMI, kg/m224.2 (19.8–35.0)22.8 (19.0–37.3)0.0424 (19.8–35.0)21 (19.0–26.4)0.00725.1 (20.0–34.7)23.3 (22.0–37.3)0.79
  Waist/hip ratio0.84 (0.68–1.18)0.81 (0.72–0.94)0.110.83 (0.68–1.18)0.80 (0.72–0.88)0.160.86 (0.74–1.12)0.83 (0.73–0.94)0.27
  Waist circumference, cm79 (64–118)73 (64–111)0.0478 (64–118)70 (64–88)0.00685 (65–110)79 (67–111)0.66
  Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg120 (90–160)110 (100–140)0.03120 (90–160)110 (100–140)0.15140 (120–160)120 (100–140)0.002
  MeS prevalence (WHO criteria)14 (28)2 (7.7)0.0439 (22.5)1 (6.25)0.255 (50)1 (10)0.15
  MeS prevalence (EGIR criteria)15 (30)1 (3.8)0.00710 (25)0 (0)0.0475 (50)1 (10)0.14
Other CVD risk factors
  Family history of CHD, n (%)6 (12)6 (23)0.312 (5)3 (18.75)0.134 (40)3 (30)1.0
  CHD, n (%)5 (10)00.151 (2.5)01.04 (40)00.086
  Total cholesterol, mg/dl201 (153–286)185 (115–326)0.056201 (153–275)178 (115–245)0.01209 (180–286)187 (178–326)0.79
  LDL cholesterol, mg/dl112 (74–179)97 (59–199)0.057113 (74–179)87 (59–132)0.000897 (89–158)117 (90–199)0.11
  Current smoking, n (%)2 (4)2 (7.7)0.602 (5)2 (12.5)0.5900
  Homocysteine, μU/l12.0 (4.0–21.0)7.0 (4.0–18.0)< 0.000110.5 (4.0–19.0)6.0 (4.0–9.0)< 0.000114.0 (9.0–21.0)10.5 (9.0–18.0)0.58
  C-reactive protein, mg/dl2.0 (1.0–26.0)1.0 (0.0–5.0)0.012.0 (1.0–26.0)1.5 (0.0–5.0)0.193.0 (1.0–6.0)1.0 (1.0–2.0)0.007
  • SLE: systemic lupus erythematosus; MeS: metabolic syndrome; HOMA-IR: homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance; BMI: body mass index; CHD: coronary heart disease.