Table 7.

Mean shoulder range of movement for those without shoulder pain/stiffness stratified by HbA1c level and adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, and current smoking.

HbA1c < 6.0% (95% CI)HbA1c 6.0% to 7.0% (95% CI)HbA1c > 7.0% (95% CI)
Flexion
  Right160.5 (159.7–161.3)*156.9 (154.9–158.9)*155.2 (151.3–159.2)
  Left159.2 (158.5–159.9)*154.6 (152.7–156.5)*153.7 (150.0–157.4)
Abduction
  Right151.2 (150.4–152.0)*147.2 (145.0–149.4)*143.4 (139.2–147.7)
  Left149.4 (148.6–150.2)*144.9 (142.7–147.0)*144.0 (137.9–146.1)
External rotation
  Right58.8 (58.1–59.6)57.1 (55.1–59.0)56.2 (52.4–60.0)
  Left56.8 (56.0–57.5)55.6 (53.6–57.5)51.8 (48.0–55.6)
  • * Statistically significantly different, p = 0.001 for each.

  • Statistically significantly different, p < 0.05 for each.