Table 6.

Mean shoulder range of movement for those without shoulder pain/stiffness, adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, and current smoking.

No Diabetes Mean Range (95% CI)Diabetes Mean Range (95% CI)p
Flexion
  Right160.1 (159.4–160.8)156.3 (153.5–159.1)0.007
  Left158.6 (158.0–159.3)154.6 (151.9–157.2)0.002
Abduction
  Right150.8 (150.0–151.6)145.1 (142.1–148.1)< 0.001
  Left148.8 (148.1–149.6)144.1 (141.2–147.1)0.002
External rotation
  Right58.7 (58.0–59.4)55.8 (53.1–58.5)0.035
  Left56.6 (55.9–57.3)53.7 (51.0–56.4)0.032
  • t test p < 0.05.