Table 5.

Mean shoulder range of movement among those with shoulder pain/stiffness stratified by HbA1c level and adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, and current smoking.

HbA1c < 6.0% (95% CI)HbA1c 6.0% to 7.0% (95% CI)HbA1c > 7.0% (95% CI)
Flexion
  Right148.7 (146.4–150.9)144.4 (139.5–149.3)139.3 (129.7–148.9)
  Left150.0 (148.0–151.9)*146.4 (142.3–150.5)137.6 (129.5–145.7)*
Abduction
  Right135.9 (133.3–138.6)132.0 (126.3–137.7)125.7 (114.5–136.8)
  Left137.3 (135.1–139.6)133.5 (128.6–138.3)125.4 (115.9–134.9)
External rotation
  Right52.6 (51.1–54.2)50.4 (47.0–53.8)46.5 (39.8–53.1)
  Left51.4 (49.9–52.9)49.4 (46.1–52.7)48.4 (41.9–54.8)
  • * Statistically significantly different, p = 0.003.

  • Statistically significantly different, p = 0.013.