Table 4.

Mean shoulder range of movement for those with shoulder pain/stiffness, adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, and current smoking.

No Diabetes Mean Range (95% CI)Diabetes Mean Range (95% CI)p
Flexion
  Right148.4 (146.4–150.5)138.5 (131.8–145.2)0.004
  Left149.5 (147.7–151.2)141.9 (136.3–147.6)0.011
Abduction
  Right135.6 (133.2–138.0)126.5 (118.6–134.3)0.025
  Left136.8 (134.8–138.9)129.8 (123.2–136.5)0.043
External rotation
  Right52.4 (51.0–53.9)47.6 (42.9–52.2)0.045
  Left51.3 (49.9–52.7)47.5 (42.3–52.0)0.104
  • t test p < 0.05.