Table 3.

SPADI score; unadjusted and adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, and current smoking.

SPADI Pain Subscore (95% CI)SPADI Disability Subscore (95% CI)Total SPADI score (95% CI)
UnadjustedAdjustedUnadjustedAdjustedUnadjustedAdjusted
Diabetes
  No diabetes26.8 (24.9–28.8)27.1 (25.2–29.1)16.1 (14.5–17.8)*16.6 (15.0–18.2)20.4 (18.7–22.1)#20.8 (19.2–22.4)
  Diabetes (diagnosed and undiagnosed)32.9 (26.5–39.4)30.7 (24.2–37.1)23.4 (17.4–29.3)*18.7 (13.5–23.9)27.2 (21.5–32.9)#23.3 (18.0–28.5)
HbA1c
  Normal, < 6.0%27.1 (25.0–29.3)27.9 (25.7–30.0)15.1 (13.3–16.8)16.3 (14.6–18.1)19.7 (18.0–21.5)***20.8 (19.1–22.6)
  6% to 7%27.4 (22.5–32.2)25.4 (20.7–30.1)22.1 (17.8–26.4)**18.0 (14.2–21.8)24.7 (20.4–28.9)21.3 (17.4–25.1)
  > 7.0%32.7 (25.5–39.9)28.7 (19.5–37.9)26.8 (18.9–34.8)19.8 (12.4–27.2)29.2 (22.1–36.2)***23.0 (15.6–30.5)
  • * Statistically significantly different, no diabetes vs diabetes, t = –2.52; p = 0.012.

  • # Statistically significantly different, no diabetes vs diabetes, t = –2.39; p = 0.017.

  • ** Statistically significantly difference, normal vs 6% to 7% (p = 0.004), and

  • statistically significant difference normal vs > 7% (p = 0.007). ANOVA test F = 8.97, p < 0.001, Bonferroni correction.

  • *** Statistically significant difference, normal vs > 7% (p = 0.045). ANOVA test F = 5.05, p = 0.007, Bonferroni correction. In adjusted analysis, no statistically significant differences between SPADI scores between diabetes and HbA1c categories.