Table 1.

Prevalence of shoulder pain/stiffness and odds ratios of shoulder pain and/or stiffness: unadjusted and adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, and current smoking.

Prevalence, n/N% (95% CI)Unadjusted OR (95% CI)Adjusted OR (95% CI)
Diabetes
  No diabetes620/290721.3 (19.9–22.9)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
  Diabetes (diagnosed and undiagnosed)62/22127.9 (22.3–34.1)*1.42 (1.05–1.93)1.05 (0.76–1.45)
HbA1c
  Normal, 6.0%531/258420.6 (19.0–22.2)1.00 (ref)1.00 (ref)
  6% to 7%119/43927.2 (23.2–31.5)**1.44 (1.14–1.81)0.97 (0.76–1.26)
  > 7.0%32/11029.0 (21.4–38.1)**1.58 (1.04–2.41)1.01 (0.64–1.59)
  • * Statistically significantly different between prevalence of shoulder pain and no diabetes. Chi-square test = 5.06, p = 0.02.

  • ** Statistically significantly different between prevalence of shoulder pain in these categories compared to HbA1c < 6.0%. Chi-square test = 13.08, p = 0.001.