Table 2.

Serological characteristics and cardiovascular risk factors: comparison between diagnosis and end of followup. Values are n (%) unless otherwise specified.

FeatureDiagnosisEnd of Followup*p, Chi-square
LA positivity78/107 (73)55/85 (65)0.29
aCL-IgG positivity103/115 (90)89/115 (77)0.02
aCL-IgM positivity54/115 (47)40/115 (35)0.08
Anti-β2-GPI-IgG positivity64/98 (65)82/115 (71)0.43
Anti-β2-GPI-IgM positivity40/98 (41)45/115 (39)0.91
Single aPL positivity22/90 (24)10/85 (12)0.03
Double aPL positivity17/90 (19)13/85 (15)0.67
Triple aPL positivity51/90 (57)48/85 (57)0.98
Negative aPL0/90 (0)14/85 (16)< 0.001
ANA positivity60/115 (52)70/115 (61)0.23
Anti-dsDNA positivity18/115 (16)13/115 (11)0.31
Anti-ENA positivity12/115 (10)20/115 (17)0.11
Isolated low C315/108 (14)16/111 (14)1.00
Isolated low C49/108 (8)8/111 (7)0.95
Low C3 and C412/108 (11)15/111 (14)0.74
Hormonal therapy23/101 (23)2/101 (2)< 0.001
Obesity, BMI > 3011/115 (10)17/115 (15)0.31
Smoking27/115 (23)18/115 (16)0.18
Diabetes mellitus2/115 (2)7/115 (6)0.17
Hypercholesterolemia26/115 (23)41/115 (36)0.042
Hyperhomocysteinemia12/85 (14)24/113 (21)0.27
Systemic arterial hypertension23/115 (20)44/115 (38)0.004
Inherited thrombophilia**26/103 (25)26/103 (25)1.00
Cancer1/115 (1)8/115 (7)0.041
  • * The last 2 determinations (at least 12 weeks apart for aPL) available at the end of the followup were considered.

  • ** Seven patients with heterozygous methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase mutation, 10 with homozygous methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase mutation, 3 with heterozygous factor II mutation, 3 with heterozygous factor V mutation, 5 with protein S deficiency, 2 with protein C deficiency, 2 with antithrombin deficiency. Significant data are in bold face. LA: lupus anticoagulant; aCL: anticardiolipin antibodies; Ig: immunoglobulins; anti-β2-GPI: anti-β2 glycoprotein I antibodies; aPL: antiphospholipid antibodies; ANA: antinuclear antibodies; anti-ENA: antiextractable nuclear antigens antibodies; C3 and C4: complement fractions 3 and 4; BMI: body mass index.