Table 1.

Past remission studies.

Authors, (ref)Yr of PublicationRemission DefinitionSerologic Activity PermissibleTreatment PermissibleRemission Achieved, % (total n)Remission Duration
Dubois (10)1956N/DN/DN/D38 (156)Up to 26 yrs
Dubois & Tuffanelli (11)1964N/DN/DN/D35 (520)Up to 26 yrs
Gladman, et al (4)1979AsymptomaticYes (all patients)None7.8 (180)4.25 yrs (mean), 2–11 yrs (range)
Tozman, et al (12)1982Absence of clinical manifestations of diseaseNoNone2.5 (160)75 mos (median)
Heller & Schur (33)1985Asymptomatic without active organ involvementNoAM, “low dose” CS4 (305)0.5–13 yrs (range)
Walz LeBlanc, et al (34)1994Clinical SLEDAI = 0 over ≥ 3 consecutive clinic visitsYes (all patients)AnyN/DN/D
Drenkard, et al (3)1996≥ 1 yr during which lack of clinical disease activity permitted withdrawal of all SLE treatmentYesNone23 (667)4.6 ± 3.6 yrs (mean ± SD), 1–17.3 yrs (range)
Barr, et al (35)1999Clinical SLEDAI or PGA = 0 for ≥ 1 yr (1 PGA to < 1.0 permissible)YesN/D16 of patient-yrs of followup (204)2.3 ± 1.1 yrs (mean ± SD), 1.0–5.7 yrs (range)
Formiga, et al (24)1999≥ 1 yr during which lack of disease activity permitted SLE treatment withdrawalYesNone24 (100)55 mos (mean)
Swaak, et al (36)1999Absence of disease-related signs with no need for treatmentN/DNone0 (187)N/A
Urowitz, et al (16)2005Clinical SLEDAI = 0 for ≥ 5 yrsYesNone1.7 (703)7.1 ± 5.3 yrs (mean ± SD), 5–17 yrs (range), 6 yrs (median)
Nossent, et al (37)2010“By PGA” not otherwise defined, within 1st yr of SLE diagnosisN/DN/D27.5 (200)N/D; 49% achieving remission maintained over 5-yr followup
Steiman, et al (18)2010Clinical SLEDAI-2K = 0 for ≥ 2 yrsYes (all patients)AM6.1 (924)182 weeks (mean), 158 weeks (median)
Conti, et al (38)2012Clinical SLEDAI-2K = 0 for ≥ 2 yrsYes (all patients)AM2.2 (45)N/D
  • N/D: not described; AM: antimalarials; CS: corticosteroids; SLEDAI: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index; SLE: systemic lupus erythematosus; PGA: physician global assessment; N/A: not applicable.