Table 1.

Power doppler ultrasound (PDUS) scanning method of the entheses.

Enthesis (bilateral)Patient PositionProbe Placement
Common extensor tendon (lateral elbow epicondyle)Sitting facing the examiner, with arms partially flexed on a table and palmar surfaces of hands togetherOver the lateral epicondyle, in longitudinal and transverse position. In longitudinal position, with slight inclination of the distal portion of the probe oriented parallel to long axis of extensor muscles
Common flexor tendon (medial elbow epicondyle)Sitting facing the examiner, with arms lying extended on a table, palms facing upOver the medical epicondyle, in longitudinal and transverse position. In longitudinal position, with slight inclination of the distal end of the probe oriented parallel to long axis of flexor muscles
Quadriceps tendon (superior pole of patella)Supine decubitus with the knee flexed 30° for GS and in neutral position for PDOver the proximal pole of the patella, in longitudinal and transverse position
Proximal patellar tendon (inferior pole of patella)Supine decubitus with the knee flexed 45° for GS and in neutral position for PDOver the distal pole of the patella, in longitudinal and transverse position
Distal patellar tendon (anterior tibial tuberosity)Supine decubitis with the knee flexed 45° for GS and in neutral position for PDOver the anterior tibial tuberosity, in longitudinal and transverse position
Achilles tendon (superior pole of calcaneus)Prone decubitus with the feet hanging outside the examination table in slight dorsal flexion for GS and in neutral position for PDOver the posterior and superior aspect of the calcaneus, in longitudinal and transverse position
Plantar fascia (inferior aspect of calcaneus)Prone decubitus with the feet hanging outside the examination table in slight dorsal flexion for GS and in neutral position for PDOver the plantar aspect of the calcaneus, in longitudinal and transverse position
  • GS: gray-scale.